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pursuits of life depend for so many benefits, and which at the same time contributes as much to the material and social improvement of the race as to the most elevated sentiments and conceptions of the artist. And yet the subject had no place in ordinary education, and the practical necessities, to which it is of the highest importance, were totally ignored. It is now very generally recognized as a systematic study in the course of public-school education. We have seen how it draws forth the perceptive powers, quickening the understanding and the imagination, and directing these transcendent endowments of the intellect in a great variety of ways to the needs and wellbeing of modern life.

With the general remark that all true intellectual culture depends upon the enrichment of the intuitive faculties, I claim for the art of drawing a permanent place in the programmes of public teaching.*

*The report of the Commissioner of Education for 1882-'83 first makes its appearance while this chapter is in press. It contains a statement of the conclusions of the Royal Commissioners (English) on technical instruction in the different countries of Europe and the United States. As we have stated in a subsequent chapter, they made a preliminary report in February, 1883, which referred exclusively to France, and displayed the activity there in all that relates to the instruction of artisans. The final report is now made public. In regard to the particular subject of drawing, they say:

For instruction in drawing, as applied mainly to decorative work in France, and to both constructive and decorative work in Belgium, the opportunities are excellent. The crowded schools of drawing, modeling, carving, and painting, maintained at the expense of the municipalities of Paris, Lyons, Brussels, and other cities-absolutely gratuitous, and open to all comers, well lighted, furnished with the best models, and under the care of teachers full of enthusiasm-stimulate those manufactures and crafts in which the fine arts play a prominent part to a degree which is without parallel in this country (England). Instruction in art applied to industry and decoration is now pursued with energy in South Germany and in sev. eral of the northern Italian towns, and the influence of this instruction on

the employment of the people is becoming very conspicuous in those countries. The government schools of applied art in France, under the decree of 1881, of which the Limoges Decorative Arts School is the earliest example, and which, like the above-mentioned schools, are gratuitous, should be mentioned in this connection.

Among the recommendations is the following:

The board recommends, for public elementary schools, that rudimentary drawing be incorporated with writing, as a single elementary subject, and that instruction in elementary drawing be continued throughout the standards (classes); that drawing from casts and models be required as part of the work, and that modeling be encouraged by grants; that a school shall not be deemed to be provided with sufficient and suitable apparatus of elementary instruction unless it have a proper supply of casts and models for drawing; that proficiency in the use of tools for working in wood and iron be paid for as a "specific subject," the work to be done, when practicable, out of school-hours; that the collection of objects, casts, and drawings for school museums be encouraged; that children under fourteen in England, as already in Scotland, be prohibited from working “full time" in factories and workshops; and that, for the rural schools, instruction in agriculture be made obligatory in the upper grades.-Report of the Commissioner of Education, 1882-'83.

CHAPTER X.

Technical education of artisans-Art-industry-Industrial school-Apprenticeship-Trades-unions-Restriction in the number of apprenticesNo restriction except want of character-Trades to provide technical instruction-University extension in England-American boys-Clerks and artisans-Manual skill and literary education-Duty of parentsApprentice-schools in Belgium-Truth and knowledge.

HIGHLY, however, as I estimate the importance of instruction in drawing, yet something more is needed in order to meet the necessities of our various industries. Art ideas must be supplemented by practical workmanship, for both must render their assistance in embellishing articles of utility which administer to the physical wants of man, as well as to those which look to beauty only and the artistic tastes which grow out of it. To compete successfully with foreign work, we must have a class of artisans as highly cultivated in workmanship as those we import from over the sea; and this skill can only be acquired by practice in their respective handicrafts. It is true that with us applied science and mechanical powers have superseded in a great measure the burden of heavy labor; but the quick eye, the expert hand, and the acute taste can never be dispensed with in the manual processes of the arts and manufactures. To meet this imperative demand for first-class workmen, without submitting to

the exactions and competition of foreign artists, we must educate the constructive ability of our youth during the period of life which is now devoted to study alone. We have developed in a very high degree the arts of manufacture; but we are nearly without any American artisans in the trades connected with design; and are consequently deprived of the acknowledged sharpness and ingenuity of our own countrymen in helping on American industries. This wide and remunerative field of employment is left to be occupied by partly educated and skilled foreigners. We have excellent schools for all sorts of instruction in the essentials of mathematics, history, literature, and philosophy; but we fit nobody with either skill or knowledge in any particular habit of industry. The United States in 1880 contained 189,000 elementary schools, having 9,720,000 pupils. The government expenditure for education in the several States was $81,719,000. There were in addition 220 normal schools with 26,000 pupils. These figures in regard to expenditure surpass those of England and Wales nearly five times, and those of France nearly four times. In the number of pupils and the expenditure of means we lead the world; and yet in our magnificent system of public instruction we have not class-room for a single student in any branch connected with industry.

There are numerous institutions in France and Germany in which elementary education and industry are taught at the same time; the design being to imbue the pupils with the rules of art and the rudiments of knowledge while training them in some branch of industry, and thus to utilize the former and elevate the latter as much as possible in a practical way. We have also dwelt, in a

former part of this work, upon the advances made by England within the last thirty years, in forming the connection between the principles of art and her industrial pursuits.

Indeed, art-industry is beginning to play an important part in the progress of nations, and is already regarded in all civilized countries as a source of national wealth and power. The establishment of schools for the instruction of those engaged in our trades and manufactures is, therefore, often the subject of examination in the public journals, especially in the trade magazines, and in essays delivered at educational institutes and social-science conventions. The effort, now so general throughout the United States, to introduce instruction in drawing as a branch of public education, can not be misapprehended. The period appears to have arrived when institutions of industrial science and education can no longer be postponed, and when they must be tried in this country on as large a scale as those witnessed abroad. There seems no reason why the institutional system should not be adapted to the tradesman, the artisan, and the manufacturer, as well as to the more pedantic professions in which men are so thoroughly trained. The reform of our taste has commenced by the purifying influence which proceeds from, and which will gradually make its way through, the community from the universal teaching of drawing. An appeal must now be made in behalf of teaching the processes of production as well as the principles which shall guide the work. The use of tools and machinery does not come by intuition, and industrial knowledge ought to include instruction in their use.

The arts and industries of life are hereafter to be

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