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tal and labor, and shows what may be accomplished by kindly offices and mutual benefactions.

There is another eminent example of a school founded by a business company for the technical instruction of their workmen, at Creuzot, where the most important iron-works in France are located. Previous to the year 1836 it was a miserable, poverty-stricken village of about 2,700 inhabitants, and so hopeless was the business that for several years it had been almost abandoned. At that time the place became the property of Messieurs Schneider, to whom the works still belong, with some other partners of limited liability. In 1867 the place was visited by Mr. Bernhard Samuelson, of England, then a member of Parliament, and his description of it has been transcribed by Mr. Stetson in his book on technical education. It exhibits the very wonderful results which have been achieved by organization and the schools established by the company for the instruction of their workmen. The course consists of a number of elementary studies, with others, such as natural philosophy, the chemistry of metals, mechanical and free-hand drawing, and modeling. The most promising boys are sent to the higher technical schools, and they return to fill the responsible positions in the management of the extensive business. The other boys are drafted from the school into the works, and are placed there strictly according to the capacity which they have shown at school, some as simple workmen, others as accountants and draughtsmen. Of late years the pupils from the École des Arts et Métiers have been appointed to teach special classes in matters bearing directly upon the occupation of the workmen, and including, as one of the most important, a com

plete course of machine-drawing; and there is not a man among the mechanics employed in the construction of engines who could not make an accurate drawing of the work on which he is engaged. Under these influences the little village has become a well-built and well-paved town, with its churches, its schools, its markets, its gas and water works, and twenty-four thousand well-fed, well-educated, and decently-clad people. And in this connection I can not omit mentioning, although they are not in France, the celebrated workshops of Count Hasrach, upon his esJ tates at Neuwelt, in Austro-Hungary, for the manufacture of artistic glassware. Every workman in his factories has received a special training for his occupation, and has even enjoyed a preliminary course of travel over the Continent, to visit other works of the same kind, so as to expand and instruct his mind before commencing the practical business of life. These causes have resulted in the highest state of perfection to which the processes of enameling, painting, embossing, and engraving on glass have been brought. The works were properly represented at the International Exhibition in the city of Melbourne, where it is reported that the exhibit included the rich ruby and the delicate amber glass, the malachite, the frosted, and the granulated gold or rainbow glass, as also that which is crackled by plunging the vessel, when it has reached a certain temperature, into ice-cold water and then replacing it in the furnace; the alternate expansion and contraction to which it is thus exposed giving it the appearance from which it derives its name. Drinking-cups of green enameled glass, of mediæval designs; vases decorated with pictures of exquisite finish, worthy of the pencil of Watteau; others

covered with a white enamel, and others still ornamented in sunk silver, were all conspicuous for their beauty and splendid finish. Here is another example of an individual actuated by the laudable ambition of providing remunerative and skilled employment for the people on his estates, and to perfect and improve a beautiful branch of art industry, and who has devoted himself to both objects with the grandest results.

The Power-Loom Weaving School, at Mulhouse, differs from any of those already mentioned in this, that it was founded by those engaged in a particular branch of industry, by the manufacturers as a class of that place, in order to provide intelligent workmen, and to promote the peculiar industry of Mulhouse, and to enable those engaged in it to produce better textile fabrics than could possibly be done by ignorant workmen. The beneficial results were acknowledged far beyond the limits of that town, for they have been of immense value to that industry throughout the whole province of Alsace. The school was suspended by the Franco-German War. The Industrial School at Epinal was founded in 1871, to supply the place of the one at Mulhouse, with a similar system of instruction, except that perhaps it is of a still higher grade. The students' work will compare favorably with that performed in the great schools of arts and trades. Mulhouse is famous for its fine muslins and cotton prints, of which a greater quantity is made here than in any other place. Its manufacturers excel in the processes of dyeing cloth. The best means of extracting the organic colors for the practical use of the printer have been discovered by the accurate investigation of each distinct coloring-matter separately. This indispensable knowl

edge has been furnished by the practical chemists who are constantly employed by the manufacturers; and the most effective manner of applying them to textile fabrics in the form of attractive patterns is by the rules incul cated in the school of design which still belongs to the "Society of Industry."

The Government of France recognizes the vast importance of extending its assistance to schools for the" technical instruction of her youth. A conspicuous evidence of this has recently been given by a decree relating to the technical school at Limoges, by which it became a state institution. In ancient times Limoges was renowned for its works in enamel, of which many choice examples are still found in the ceramic collections of Europe; and it is a recommendation of a modern design to say that it is after the style of the old Limoges enamel. The town suffered greatly from the decay of this industry, for it almost completely run out. In 1766 kaolin was discovered near Limoges in great abundance and of excellent quality. Porcelain-works were established, and the place is now the center of that industry in France. In 1862 the school, which has just been adopted by the Government, was founded by Adrien Dubouche. Convinced of the vital importance for a special training of the young who were to work at the trades of the place, he established the school out of his own means and by the aid of the municipality, from whom he obtained a small subvention. He also established free town schools to teach the fine arts, as applied to the industrial arts, and gave them his personal attention and supervision. Owing to these causes, Limoges has again become a great seat of art-industry. Immense establishments in porce

lain manufacture have grown up, and poverty and drunkenness have disappeared. This town was the birthplace of many great men, of whom the chief are Pope Clement VI, the Chancellor d'Agnesseau, Vergniaud, Marshal Jourdan, and others; but none of them all deserves a monument to his memory more than the industrial philanthropist Adrien Dubouche.

By the governmental decree, it is reorganized under the title of École Nationale d'Art Décoratif à Limoges, for the purpose of training boys and girls-for it is open to both alike—as teachers of drawing, and for the exercise of trades connected with art. It provides instruction specially appropriate to the trades chosen by the pupils. Besides several general studies, there are also special courses for different applications of drawing for trade purposes, pottery, enameling, and engraving. Provision is made for prizes, scholarships, and examinations. The boys, on entering, must be over thirteen years of age, and the girls over twelve. Tuition is free.

Among the examples which the French Government has given of its interest in the technical education of the people; the École des Arts et Métiers is perhaps the most remarkable. I transcribe a small portion of the report made concerning these celebrated schools by Joshua L. Chamberlain, one of the commission from the United States to the Paris Exposition of 1878, upon the subject of education. I select the following only:

It was the Convention in 1784 which decreed that there should be formed in Paris, under the name of the Conservatory of Arts and Trades, a public depot of machines, models, tools, drawings, descriptions, and books upon all arts and trades, the construction and employment

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