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ify their life and character. A wealthy merchant recently made a sagacious remark, viz., that he was going to have all his sons learn a trade of some kind, so that they should have something to fall back upon, in case adversity or misfortune ever overtook them in the business he should leave them. So every father who would restrain his son from entering the habitation of vice, who would correct him when correction was salutary, who would insist upon his attention to moral and religious improvement, and who would teach him to be generous and upright, must, in addition to all these, insist that education shall include practical lessons in some useful art or trade. Until this reformation in teaching the young takes place, the poor workman and the poor boy will swell the increasing ranks of poverty and turbulence.

This remedy is suggested, not only upon a theory which seems reasonable in itself, but also upon the distinct ground of experience in nearly every country on the Continent of Europe. The French Imperial Commission, appointed June 22, 1863, to inquire into the character of technical instruction throughout France, speaking of the moral and intellectual effects of the apprentice-schools in Belgium, declare that the pupils in those workshops learn reading, writing, the rudiments of arithmetic, etc., almost as rapidly as those who are obliged to remain in school all day; and that experience has proved that the introduction of literary and moral instruction is effected with the greatest facility in the workshops, and that it produces an excellent effect on the character and morals of

the young workmen. At that date fifty-four apprenticeschools had been established in the kingdom, in most of which primary instruction was given to the extent desired,

and the number of workmen they had turned out in a period of twelve years for a single industry, that of weaving, amounted to 13,481-the greater part rescued from want, mendicity, and all the vices they engender. The same report also says that "the official reports published at Bruges, in 1863, show that everywhere instruction and habits of regular employment have produced the most successful results in improving the morals not only of the children, but also of the parents, and that mendicity and vagrancy have almost entirely disappeared from those districts" where the apprentice-schools are established.

All must admit that these observations agree with the experience of every community where the youth are educated and brought up to steady employment. It proceeds upon the theory that they should receive such instruction as would enable them to enter upon some useful pursuit, and at the same time give them an opportunity to acquire a general education, so that they will turn out to be good workmen and intelligent social beings. This is the need of this nation. Industrial education is our notorious want. A thousand things combine to mold the institutions of a people. Commerce, climate, the attraction of novel inventions, the love of imitation, and the vicissitudes of war-all contribute to national character. But the ornamentation of human existence will hereafter evolve the most important additions to human wealth and advancement; and Art-Industry, that waxing giant of the future, is already at the doors of our educational system, knocking for admission, and promising, not only to furnish skill to our labor, but to elevate our taste, and embellish our ordinary existence with its cheerful and refining influence. I know there is a sentimental prejudice which

considers that it mars the high claims and moral influence of truth and knowledge to measure them by their power of administering to some useful purpose. We should love truth for its own sake undoubtedly, but we should also remember that there is no truth worthy of our consideration which will not benefit mankind. Hence it is that in every effort to diffuse popular knowledge or particular instruction, and in every application of science to the useful arts, genius and learning often find their most important and interesting employment. Attainments in knowledge are often supposed by the ignorant to be of no real importance, and are frequently ridiculed as being barren of all practical utility. But nothing could be more mistaken than this. There is no branch of industrial art which does not owe, for the most part, its improved processes to a discovery of the laws of nature; and the most useful inventions and improvements have resulted from scientific research. And so art, industry, virtue, knowledge, beneficence, fidelity to principle-all in their places-contribute to the wealth, permanence, and prosperity of a na tion.

CHAPTER XI.

Education of young artisans-Apprenticeship-English legislation-Mr. Jevons's views-Adam Smith's opinion-Practically no apprenticeship in the United States-Technological schools in Europe-Trade-schools in Germany-Established by law-Supported by the state or local authorities-The school at Hamburg-Trade-schools the most interesting— The one at Barmen-Drawing in all the German schools-The school at Chemnitz-Schools at Vienna-Technical education in Switzerland --The great benefits thereof to that country-Opinion of the French minister in that country-The first industrial school founded there by Pestalozzi-These institutions in France-After the Crystal Palace Exposition-A commission appointed--Important changes-Classification of industrial schoois by Professor Thompson-Impossible to exemplify them separately-École municipal d'apprentis--Account of the same -Visit of British Commission to the same-French industrial schools not national-École Saint-Nicolas-School at Roubaix-Government support within two years-The republican government established a national system recently-Schools in Belgium - Those at Ghent, Tournay, Verviers, and the cities-Apprentice-school for weaving--Technical education in Great Britain-Letter of the Chancellor-Views of Mr. McLaren-Report of the British Commission--Questions which arise as to effect in Europe-Is it suitable for the United States ?--Universal opinion in its favor-Report of the British Commission-French commission of inspection--School la Villette-Corbon, senator, upon the sameTolain, senator, on apprenticeship-schools-Industrial training the necessity of the age-Good effect on the industrial classes-Opinion on this subject-Views of educators in the United States-Shall it be in the public school?-Different views entertained-Dr. E. E. White-John E. Clarke-The necessity of this instruction admitted.

ANYTHING relating to the subject of industry ought to be treated as worthy of fair and deliberate attention by

the American people. The manner of educating youthful artisans presents a topic of immense interest, and it is impossible for us, conscious of our great industrial power, to neglect much longer proper measures for industrial training which will be both practical and potential. Formerly, by the statute law of England, an apprenticeship of seven years was recognized as the legal mode of entering a trade, but at the beginning of the present century Parliament repealed all legislation upon the subject. In a work entitled "The State in Relation to Labor," Mr. Jevons, a brilliant writer on political economy, complains of the practice of binding youths to long periods of apprenticeship, and notes with much earnestness that it has fallen into desuetude, and discusses the common law still in force, which allows a parent to bind a child to a long term of industrial servitude; and he thinks it to be a question whether it ought not also to be abolished. He confirms his own views by a well-known passage from Adam Smith ("Wealth of Nations," vol. i, p. 110) in which that great author uses the following language:

The institution of long apprenticeship has no tendency to form young people to industry. A journeyman who works by the piece is likely to be industrious, because he derives a benefit from every exertion of his industry. An apprentice is likely to be idle, and almost always is so, because he has no immediate interest to be otherwise. A young man naturally conceives an aversion to labor, when for a long time he receives no benefit from it. . . . A young man would practice with much more diligence and attention, if from the beginning he wrought as a journeyman, being paid in proportion to the little work which he could execute, and paying in his turn for the materials which he might sometimes spoil through

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