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CHAPTER XVI.

Chemistry as an industrial science-Its necessity in the art of dyeing -Colors elaborated by chemists-Those derived from coal-tar— Its use in the fine arts and in other industries-Mathematics illustrated in the useful arts-Views of Herbert Spencer and Dr. Dick -Hydrostatics-Principles of the law of fluids and their application to industrial purposes-Electricity as a mechanical agent-Its subserviency to man's direction-Its wide diffusion and power-Progress made, and the new arts to which it is applied—Geology and mineralogy-Geological deductions - Irregularities in formation and their study-Various facts of the science set forth, which have been applied to artificial uses-Mineral wealth of the United States-Methodical study in our schools-The division of laborApplied in every branch of industry, especially where machinery is used-If one has been educated in the mechanic art, he is not likely to become a machine-Technic knowledge opens access to many occupations-The invention of labor saving machines frequent in this country-Universal education, its advantages-American inventions-London "Times" on the exhibit at the Paris Exposition, 1878-Those in general use-Causes of inventive activity-Classical learning, a digression-Amherst―The English language— Greek and Latin should not take all the time and space-True knowledge not to be sacrificed to verbalism-The ingenuity of the people is a national characteristic-Plan of education at AthensRome-In Germany-In France-England-Scotland-Lord Bacon and Locke-Bede and Alcuin-Mechanical training to develop our capacities The effect of machinery upon the condition of the working-man-Various instances cited-Does it dispense with his vocation?-Agricultural implements-The railroad-Iron shipsImprovements give more and finer work than they displace -Machinery depends upon scientific principles-A knowledge of these important to the artisan who fabricates them--The study of mechanic art indispensable — Industrial instruction - England and France-It is a public question—It is a mistake to wait for local industries to begin the educational work — Wealth, population, and intelligence .

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CHAPTER XVII.

Moral influence of industry-West Philadelphia Penitentiary-Criminal statistics Necessity of manual training to correct degrading views of labor-Also as preparatory for the safety of societyAdvantages of industrial education to workmen-It improves their condition and cultivates the moral affections-Early impressionsMr. Richards's views - Exclusive intellectual training creates a disdain for labor-The connection between idleness and vicePublic schools progressive-The friends of industrial education should vindicate the public schools for their reconstructing tendency-Mr. Fraser's report to the British Government-The improvement of public schools since that time-The education of Indians-Hampton Institute-It is an industrial school-Indians taught trades — The best way to educate and civilize them— Manual training as an antidote to over-study-Dr. Richardson's views-Boston committee on the subject-The Industrial IIome School at Washington-The effect of skill in workmanship upon the condition of the workers-Science and art mutually aid each other The laboring artist reappears - The establishment of Messrs. Minton-"L'Art Revue "-Fine art in the United States -Production in art-industry-Its humanizing influence-Art and science-Mental industry and material industry in close allianceThe worker is rising higher and higher, and is gaining in intellectual enjoyment-Industrial education the working-man's best friend .

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APPENDIX.

Extract from the Annual Cataloguc, 1881-'82, of the School for Manual Instruction of Washington University, St. Louis, referred to in Chapter V

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Appendix Second to Chapter V

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Industrial education neglected—The lessons of things—The education of children before the period of school-The understanding and the senses -The education of thought and language-Mission of the senses and physical organs-The eyes and the fingers translate the works of the spirit-Sensible objects sources of information-Cultivating half the faculties-Simple ideas powerless uniess embodied in some form-The hand-Montaigne on the hand-Outis on the void in education-The

senses.

No discussion regarding the useful pursuits of life can take place at present without an emphatic recognition of the claims of industrial education. When we consider that all labor is now directed by knowledge, and must continue to be so still more in the future, we may be sensible of some surprise at the little effort made in our educational system to meet this want. It will be generally admitted that an educated person should gain assistance from his studies when he comes to earn a livelihood. But our boys and girls, for the most part, have no occupation, and are fit for none when they leave school. They know enough, but can do nothing; they have learning, but no capacity. The industrial pursuits of life, upon which the whole fabric of society reposes, are quite ignored. Education is bestowed upon the mind, while all the executive functions of the physical system are neglected. These executive functions are certainly

as important as a knowledge of geography, spelling, defining, and grammar, of which the details are so often without interest, and do not in any way develop the faculties that deal with the realities of life; nor do such studies enable the pupils to speak of anything belonging to any calling, pursuit, or manufactured article on earth. It would seem from our system of public instruction that there existed no such pursuits as that by which men can earn a living, no employment which requires manual skill of any kind, and no such things in the world as machines and tools and applied science except as mere figures of speech. To graduate one taught to think only, is like sending a ship to sea in charge of a navigator without a pilot, or a single person on board who can understand or execute his commands. Mental improvement is an inappreciable blessing, but do not the eye and the hand improve the earth and fill the world with comfort and beauty? Man was endowed with both to subdue the earth, and a proper education necessarily includes the cultivation of a taste for lessons in regard to things as well as ideas. Our earliest education is a sensible one, and adapted to our condition. Our first teachers and masters in philosophy are our hands, our eyes, and our sensations. The facts communicated to the child by experience may seem to be acquired rather by the operations of instinct than of intellect, but the term education. is as applicable to this training as to the formal teaching of the school. Whatever he sees, or hears, or feels, teaches him a thousand things necessary to a narrow set of exigencies, and gives him the mastery of his limited necessities. He learns to speak after his first or second year, and acquires grammar before he can say his alpha

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