Billeder på siden
PDF
ePub

in Charleroi, the situations of foremen in collieries, furnaces, and mechanics' shops, are only given to those overseers who have obtained a diploma of the professional school of Charleroi.

Indeed, the advantages conferred by this instruction upon the workmen are corroborated by the strongest testimony and in many ways. The pupils find employment at good wages, their labor brings more than that of ignorant workmen; they are more likely to obtain preferment, for they are more intelligent and more useful; they are better fed, better clothed, better housed, and better behaved; and their condition, morally and socially, is improved in a very remarkable degree.

As to the second point, whether this system of instruction is adapted to the needs and tastes of the people of the United States, that presents a question so far from the line of study and observation of the author, that perhaps little account can be made of his opinion. He, however, can appeal on this subject with great confidence to the views generally entertained and expressed by the most distinguished educators in this country, for they all agree that we ought to have some plan of industrial training. The only question which appears to divide them, or to divide others, is whether it shall be the business of the public school to provide it. Dr. E. E. White, who argues against its introduction into public education, very forcibly expressed his opinion to be for special schools to promote important industries or to meet the wants of classes, and that the State has the right to supplement the public school by special schools for technical training; and in his speech on industrial education before the American Institute, he said: "But, of course, I could take no ex

ception to all that may be said in favor of technical and industrial schools standing beside the public schools and carrying on this work of education-giving to our youth technical and special training for industrial pursuits. That is what we have got to do in this country. We must have a system of technical training, and the question is, shall we put a system into the public schools, as they are now organized?" and he indicated an opinion very strongly against blending the two systems.

On the same occasion, John S. Clarke, of Boston, read an exceedingly well prepared and philosophical paper on the same subject, in which he traces a theory of practical education for the public schools, in the use of handtools in wood and metals, not for application in any par ticular trade or trades, but for developing skill of hand in the fundamental manipulations connected with the industrial arts, and also as a means of mental development; and he adds: "Secondary schools must provide a way to give broader instruction in experimental and theoretical science; and, also, in a generalized form, instruction in manual training, including the use of hand and machine tools, not in its application to any special trade or trades, nor as a training divorced from general intellectual culture, but as an essential part of a sound general education."

We may remark that these views derive additional strength from the almost uniform testimony of business and commercial authorities. The scientific journals, the trade magazines, and the daily press, all unite in recognizing the necessity of training men and women to become intelligent masters of the principles upon which the useful arts depend, and the practice by which they are made profitable. The reconstruction of our industries,

which has been going on for several years, and which is still progressing on a scale of unexampled magnitude, has rendered the necessity of doing this either a duty of the public, or of the liberality of individuals. Indeed, the new system has already made some progress, and is in a fair way of making more, as we shall show hereafter. We may, therefore, conclude that the relation of education to industry, which is simply to put thought into the hand of labor, is one of the conditions upon which our prosperity depends.

CHAPTER XII.

Education applied to industry in the United States—Impulse given to it— Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York-Mr. Auchmuty's contribu tion-Instruction in trades, common and decorative-To turn out trained mechanics-New York trade schools-Art school at Trenton, New Jersey-The youth at the potteries-Lasell Seminary-A modified industrial school-Dwight School, Boston-Sewing-classes for girls in Boston schools-Excellent work by them-Art needle-work an industry-For house decoration-On ladies dresses-Code in England -Schools for sewing in Switzerland-Germany-Bavaria-Drawing in embroidery-Dorchester industrial school-Public schools at Montclair, New Jersey-Industrial department-The order of exercises--Industrial art-school in Philadelphia-Mr. Leland's system of teaching the minor arts-Their great variety-Outlay for such a school-Practical results-It revives the popular arts-Useful to all-The Spring Garden Institute-Mechanical handiwork-Course of instruction-Results— Technological and industrial training schools-At Worcester and St. Louis Industrial home school at West Washington, District of Columbia-Cincinnati School of Design-A school of industrial art— New mode of industrial education required-Reasons for the changeSubdivision of labor-The general artisan-Great advantage of Manual and technical instruction the practical want-Appeal to the wealthy.

[ocr errors]

AND now let us return to our native industries. Education, as applied to industry, is of but recent origin, and has not yet made much advance in the United States; and as we are greatly behind other countries in this tendency, we cannot much longer omit some definite movement for planting the germs of what will become a com

prehensive system of industrial science. No people can come down, or up, as the case may be, to the practical realities of life more directly than Americans, and when the time arrives they adopt means quite adequate to the necessities of the times. They are liberal patrons of artwork, and this is witnessed by the immense sums they pay for it. Our manufacturers realize the great change which has taken place since the Centennial Exhibition of 1876, and are seeking assiduously, at home and abroad, for skilled workmen, and for the means of giving beautiful forms to useful articles. This impulse has given rise undoubtedly to some isolated efforts at manual training, which inspire the hope that our peculiar necessities are appreciated at home, and that some extended system will be adopted to encourage and foster industrial education.

Among the movements in this direction are the efforts of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, in the city of New York. According to a statement in the New York "Times," that institution opened classes for instruction in designing upon wood and metal. The trustees had no means to carry this experiment out, when a liberal proposition was made to them by Mr. R. T. Auchmuty, to erect suitable buildings for this purpose, and to open schools for some of the decorative arts, such as housepainting, frescoing, and wood-carving; pledging himself to pay during three years any deficiency which might exist between the receipts and expenses. We are also informed that his plan did not contemplate entirely free schools, on the ground that the apprentices would value more what they paid for, and that by a fee, say of $100 a year, the schools could be made, in time, self-supporting. They are intended to do thorough work, and to

« ForrigeFortsæt »