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of which should be explained by three demonstrators and a draughtsman attached to the establishment. The end. proposed by the founders was the practical instruction of workmen. Their motto was, "They must be made to see rather than to speak." Four years later an ancient priory was opened for this great work. Such was the beginning of an institution which has engaged the interest of some of the greatest men of France, and which has rendered so great service to industry in illustrating and explaining the applications of science to the arts. It has to-day a costly library of 24,000 volumes relating to science, art, and industry, installed in the ancient refectory, now splendidly restored, and which disputes with Sainte-Chapelle the distinction of being the most elegant and graceful monument of Gothic architecture which exists in France. The Conservatoire has a collection of objects appropriate to its design, the mere titles of which fill a volume of four hundred closely-printed pages. At present there are fourteen chairs of instruction. It may be well to give their designations, and the names of the professors occupying them:

Geometry applied to the Arts.-Colonel Laussedat.
Descriptive Geometry.-De la Gournerie.

Mechanics applied to the Arts.--Tresca.

Civil Construction.-Trelat.

Physics applied to the Arts.-Becquerel.

General Chemistry in its Relation to Industry.Peligot.

Industrial Chemistry.-Gerard.

Chemistry applied to the Industries of Dyeing, Ceramics, and Glass-working.-De Luynes.

Agricultural and Analytical Chemistry.-Bousingault and Schloessing.



Agricultural Works and Rural Engineering.-Man

Spinning and Weaving.-Alcan.

Political Economy and Statistics.—Burat.

The course of instruction is not unlike that at the Sorbonne, the College of France, and the Museum of Natural History. The lectures are public and free to all, foreigners and citizens alike. It is a deeply interesting scene for an American to sit amid that motley auditory, sometimes numbering nearly a thousand, all listening intently to the masterly yet simple expositions of men like Becquerel, Burat, Gerard, and Levasseur, of all conditions. and ages, from the boy of twelve, first waking to the thought of the possibilities in the great world before him, to the dim-eyed sire of eighty years, now at last realizing what might have been. There are as many as 160,000 of these auditors each year.

The schools of arts and trades are designed to train superintendents and foremen of workshops and well-instructed and skillful artisans in the working of iron and wood. There are three of these in France-at Châlonsur-Marne, at Angers, and at Aix. There are at each of these three hundred pupils, admitted upon competitive examinations. They are between the ages of fifteen and seventeen years. These pupils live in the school-building.

The course of study extends through three years. The theoretical teaching comprises arithmetic, geometry, elementary algebra, rectilinear trigonometry, descriptive geometry, mechanics, physics and chemistry, drawing, geography, grammar, and accounts. Seven hours of labor a day are devoted to practical instruction given in four workshops carpentry and modeling, foundry, forging, and adjusting. Diplomas and silver medals certify to the aptitudes of the pupils, and serve as recompense at the end of the course.

The exhibits of these three schools attracted considerable interest. Steam-engines of various sorts, machines for use in wood and iron work, showed the theoretical and practical mastery attained by the pupils. The drawings and other exercises were also highly creditable.

From this brief sketch we may learn the immense weight which the French Government and people attach to the subject of industrial education, and the thorough and splendid manner in which they treat it.

It is noticeable that Government aid to art education is never contested in France, and it has always played a considerable part in the technical instruction of the working-people. The question is regarded as one of public interest, and the current administration might as well abdicate its power as to ignore its responsibility for the support of art-schools. Governments have succeeded each other pretty often in France, but these ideas and purposes have survived their successive falls; and each in its turn has recognized the improvement of the people in the useful arts as among the highest obligations of executive authority. The need and security of public assistance is so well fixed in the customs of the people, and is so completely identified with the tendencies and expectations of the country, that every Minister of Public Instruction, from M. Cousin to M. Jules Ferry, has used the most liberal exercise of his office in its behalf. Like the elementary schools, they are placed under his authority. The instruction is free to all, the law is equal to all, and there is an opportunity for any boy in France, however poor his circumstances, to obtain an art-education which shall cost him nothing. The Minister of Public Instruction is of high official importance; he is a member of the Cabinet; his estimates are placed in the budget, and, notwithstanding the magnitude of the other departments of the Government, he is recognized as representing the most important interests in the republic.

"In every town of any importance in a manufacturing

point of view, in every district of all the principal cities, there is to be found the art-school, just as there is to be found the church or the baker's shop." The examples already given are only typical ones, of which there are hundreds besides. All the elements of society conceive themselves equally interested in this preparation of the rising generations. Need we be astonished at the perfection of art-industry in France? The explanation is easy when we consider the causes of these wonderful phenom


With us, the idea that the state should share with society in the public instruction of the useful arts looks like an interference with private right. Perhaps the limit of legislative action is not easily determined. But surely, when the object is not in the interest of a favored class, but to raise up and elevate all the industrious classes together for the benefit of the whole body, it ought not to be regarded by any sincere friend of the race as an infringement upon the guarantees of equal laws. Whether this is so, will be discussed when in the course of this work the subject of manual training in the public schools shall be reached. Meanwhile, we may learn much from France, for the people there would hold the Government extremely culpable that would neglect a duty so sacred.

In Germany something of the same kind had been attempted, perhaps at an earlier date than in any other quarter of Europe; and it is highly probable that the schools there for training workmen are among the most remarkable in Europe. Schools of design, and polytechnic and industrial schools, are as numerous as any other kind of schools. But the best German exhibits of art

schools in the Paris and Vienna Expositions of 1867 and 1873 were those from Bavaria and Würtemberg.

It is most unaccountable that there were no educational exhibits from Germany at the Expositions of 1876 and 1878. This is the more to be regretted, since it is supposed that she leads the world in matters of education.

The schools at Nuremberg are characterized by distinct and peculiar merits which deserve to be noticed, information of which comes from another source, that of the sub-committee of the French Commission appointed to inquire into the state of technical instruction in Germany and Switzerland, who say in their general report: "In this town (Nuremberg), so noted for its various manufactures, there are several drawing-schools of different degrees, according to the trade the pupils intend to folThe first and most important is the higher school of industrial drawing, conducted by M. Kröling. It is justly regarded in Germany as the one which has rendered most service to industry"; and after stating the method of teaching, the report adds, “The general opinion of the persons who have made a study of questions connected with teaching, not only in Bavaria, but also in


other parts of Germany, is, that the Nuremberg school has contributed more than any other to the progress of the national industry."

I transcribe a single sentence from the special report on Würtemberg: "There have been established, in the kingdom of Würtemberg, more than four hundred drawing-schools; and this organization, which does not date back more than ten years, has already led to very decided improvements in the manufactures of the country. It is satisfactory to know that the designers trained in these

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