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be so far mastered in a day by anybody who can draw, as to enable the pupil to produce a perfectly encouraging result. But industrial art, to be taught in schools, need not and should not be limited to ornamental work. This is to be at first followed, simply because it is the only work easy enough for children and girls. Carpenter's work, or joinery, in its rudiments, or in fact any branch of practical industry, may be taken up as soon as the pupil is fitted for it. Industrial art in schools covers the ground or fills the time intervening between the Kindergarten and the industrial school, but it blends with and includes the latter. It is characteristic in this, that the system, as I conceive it, is capable of being introduced into every public or private school in the country, or into any institution where there is a preceptor who has some knowledge of drawing, with sense enough to apply it according to certain elementary hand-books of art.

The school began its work in April, 1881, with nearly a hundred pupils, half teachers and half scholars. The children are from twelve to fifteen years of age. Every teacher in the public schools selects one or two scholars. These are divided into two classes, one attending on Tuesdays from 3 to 5, the other on Thursdays at the same hours. When the pupils can make a fair original design, they learn painting, modeling, carving, embroidery, or metal work. They are, however, variously occupied, some in painting plaques and tiles, some in carving walnut panels, or in making brackets, doilies, tidies, chair-backs, hammering brass-work and different kinds of sheet-metal, and still others in a variety of modeling, ornamenting, and glazing clay-work, and the girls in designing patterns which they work in outline embroidery; and the work thus done is of such a character as to be suitable for decorative effect, and as can be readily sold for a good

price in the market. The operations in modeling are taught in systematic treatment, and embrace a great variety of plastic objects, such as jars, vases, flowers, fishes, branches, vines, and leaves, in which each pupil carries out his own design according to his own liking, and no uniform rule has been adopted except that it must be original. The work in sheet-metals and in wood-carving gives evidence of skill even in those who have not practiced it longer than a few weeks; showing that this kind of skill can be easily acquired by any child in the public schools. Very excellent specimens in drawing are exhibited at the table devoted to that study, from the simplest forms up to well-developed ornaments, and are afterward successfully used on the material of their work. Art needlework is taught before plain sewing, as it is said to make the latter easier in the end. The art of stenciling, or flower-painting on cloth, is practiced, the picture being surrounded by an outline of needlework, producing very salable articles by means of their beauty. Practice in drawing and modeling, owing to its great variety, leads gradually to tempered beauty in original designs upon repoussé-work, on carved wood, vases, and jars, and in patterns for embossed leather, wall-paper, carpets, mosaics, inlaying, and articles of furniture, for the execution of all these may be intrusted to the pupils and sold for their benefit.

The outlay for a small school or club on the humblest scale is estimated at not more than $20 or $30. The requirements of a school on a large scale for a city would be more. The school board at Philadelphia appropriated $1,500 in the year 1882 for the maintenance of the school, and it was confidently asserted that it can be made

entirely self-supporting, if not profitable, by means of the work done by the pupils.

Of the practical results it is stated that there is a great demand for boys with such knowledge as is acquired in this school, and Mr. Leland adds: "I could without exception find places in a great variety of manufactories for all the pupils in the public industrial school who have had about twenty lessons in design and modeling. In a few weeks all who have advanced beyond design produce work that has a market value."*


The instruction in this school revives the traditions of these humble arts, many of which are almost forgotten, and some of them introduced for the first time into this country. They are not an invention. They constituted the popular art of the past, when the people had to help themselves to what was useful and beautiful, and when, consequently, the households of the common classes were made somewhat attractive by beautiful specimens of mod

* A correspondent writes to the " Decorator and Furnisher" as follows: The city of Philadelphia is the sole proprietor of the school, and through it has originated a reform in education which has never before been fully practiced either in Europe or America.

This experimental school has been frequently visited by distinguished foreigners, as well as by many Americans, who have come to the city for the express purpose of examining it.

The visitor will see about forty pupils engaged in studying designs, about as many more modeling vases, etc., in clay, with color and glaze, carving in panels, embroidering, and painting in oil, etc.

What these children are doing is to qualify them for the workshop or to teach. That the project is a success will appear from a few facts. A practical manufacturer has taken many of the pupils, and pays them well, as he regards them sufficiently well trained to be of use as designers.

A situation with good pay has been offered to a girl of fourteen, and one of the boy-students during his vacation of two months earned $218.

eling and by designs in their furniture and domestic utensils. The plan of the institution revives the art-instincts of the people, and utilizes them in numerous branches of remunerative labor. It deserves the fullest recognition for the careful and systematic advancement of industrial art; especially since it is a department of the public school in a city so largely engaged in the interests of artindustry. Moreover, it has a practical value to thousands of children that cannot be estimated, for, under the instruction here afforded, though entirely ignorant of any useful pursuit, they can become skilled in a great variety of hand-work, which will at once make them self-supporting, and which will be of great service even to those who do not need to earn a living, as there is scarcely a situation in life where a knowledge of these simple arts will not be useful, and a source of endless enjoyment to all who can practice them.*

The Spring Garden Institute, of the city of Philadelphia, has an industrial department fittted up with benches, a forge, machine-tools driven by a gas-engine, and all the appliances of a first-class workshop. Instruction is given in mechanical handwork to classes meeting at night. It has a capacity of thirty-five pupils per night; each class meets two evenings per week, so that instruction can be given to about one hundred and five individual pupils, and it is used to its full capacity. The tuition is

* Since the publication of the former editions of this work, I learn that Mr. Leland has been for some time in England, and with the assistance of Mrs. Jebb has founded "The Home Art Association," and many persons with titles are among its directors. They have from recent accounts over two hundred schools or classes all over Great Britain, teaching the minor arts entirely upon his system of applied design. This circular is still the only handbook on its subject for both America and England.

fixed at five dollars for two evenings per week for three months.

Instruction in the metal course embraces filing, turning, drilling, forging, and the mechanical work and drawing connected therewith; the vise-work comprises twentysix vises and one hundred and sixty running feet of benchroom, and instruction is given in every kind of filing on cast iron, steel, brass, and wrought iron. In regard to machine-tools, the shop is furnished with an engine, power planing-machine, lathes, drill-press, and the necessary shafting, so that every opportunity to learn their practical use is afforded to the pupils. Besides, a modern forge has been provided, embracing the tools necessary in forging and welding, whether the work is simple or intricate, and molding and casting in practical founding work will be added (if not already added) at the necessary moment.

It is the design of the managers to teach joiners as well as machinists, and for this purpose to introduce classes in wood-working, wood-turning, carpentry and cabinet-making, pattern-making, and other branches of that industry.

A very large number of the pupils are machinists or employés in machine-shops, who, in the absence of such instruction as was afforded to apprentices under the old system, seek this school as the best place in which to acquire a broad knowledge of the trade at which they work and special skill in the handling of tools. In the annual report of 1881 it is stated that, in the natural course of events, the schools have become employment agencies for the pupils who enter them, and, as a result of the instruction given to the pupils, many of them have obtained de

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