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sirable situations, and others have been advanced in their chosen professions.

The publications of several technological institutions show that they have excellent manual training-schools, in which the pupils are taught a variety of mechanical operations, including the use of tools and machinery in working upon wood and metal. The Worcester Free Institute and the Washington University at St. Louis, already mentioned, manufacture articles for sale, and are managed very much like other machine-shops, only that the pupils learn the science as well as the practice of mechanical art.* The shops are fairly equipped with machinery, and the instruction must be of excellent quality, for it is imparted by men of reputation in their profession, and the students they send out become civil and mechanical engineers and skilled workmen, and find situations as superintendents and foremen in other shops without difficulty. These schools are yet in their infancy, and are not sufficiently endowed so as to make instruction free, and they require assistance in order to advance the work to that point, and extend the sphere of their usefulness to all.

The Industrial Home School, situated in West Washington, District of Columbia, is another step in the path of practical education. It combines the advantages of a school and a home, to which are admitted a number of boys and girls-the children of poor parents, to be taught, besides the ordinary school-lessons, such industries as will fit them for the duties of life. The boys are taught many useful trades and employments, while the girls receive instruction in the various household and other duties appropriate to their sex. The principle upon which the school is founded comprehends the best training for chil

*This is a mistake. Articles manufactured in the workshops of the Washington University are not for sale.

dren in this world, that is, their symmetrical education by giving due consideration "to their mental, manual, and moral endowments. The mental is provided for by the public school, which is already a part of the education of this Home School. The manual is attaining importance by the industries which are already in successful operation in this school, such as shoemaking, gardening, cooking, sewing, and wood-work. And in this Cottage Home will be exemplified moral training, far better than it is at all possible by what is known as the system now happily passing away." The ground for the Cottage Home was broken for the building in the early summer (1881), and the institution has received the hearty sympathy of the friends of practical education, many of whom have devoted their best efforts to its success.

The Cincinnati School of Design exhibits a unique development of technical study and instruction in the practical work of some of the skillful industries, such as wood-carving, designs for work in metal, decoration of furniture, painting on china and porcelain. The students are of both sexes, and the course of study commences with lessons in drawing and the primary principles of design; and when they can draw a limited number of leaves, flowers, birds, and vines, they are instructed in the true principles of decoration. In the report for the year 1878, as a proof of the efficiency of the school, a list is given of names and occupations of students who have turned their training to practical use, the record covering eight years. There are two hundred and eight names, fifty-four of them those of women. Lithographers, designers, sculptors, engravers, landscape-painters, and even sign-painters and stripers," architects, decorators, turners, and others are

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mentioned in this list, and twenty-one persons are named as engaged in carving or other work in wood. The list, however, gives the names of those pupils only of whose subsequent course the teacher of drawing has positive knowledge, and a foot-note explains that the list includes but few of the members of the classes in carving, "for the reason that the larger number of the pupils in those classes have employed their talent in beautifying their own homes rather than in the production of objects for sale; all of them have executed valuable pieces of work, and could earn a living by carving and designing were they so inclined." The only manufactory of carved wood in Cincinnati can probably be traced to the existence of the School of Design.

We have emphasized these few examples of the Industrial School because they are new in this country, and, like almost every other innovation, will encounter many difficulties before they succeed in attaining a solid foundation. They show the progress already made, and should serve to encourage the friends of industrial education by the promise they suggest of still greater progress in the future. The old system of apprenticeship is already dead, nor is its general revival either possible or desirable. The great change in our industries requires a corresponding change in the mode of learning them. A knowledge of a handicraft now includes some proficiency in art-science, and has become an exponent of intellectual capacity. Most of the manual occupations require some instruction in the art of drawing and in the theoretical as well as practical elements of art-education. This was not attainable when the apprentice picked his trade up in the course of daily labor, and his master was as ignorant as himself

of the related principles. He learned slowly, for much of his time was occupied in unskilled work and menial service, and indeed his lot was often that of a mere drudge. Our industrial establishments, moreover, are on a surpassing scale of expense and mechanical perfection, often employing a thousand workmen; and the individual mechanic, working in his own shop and giving scanty information to his apprentices, is fading out before the energies of modern skill and perseverance. We might as well find fault with this revolution as with the railway for taking the place of the stage-coach. Besides, we must remember also that our workshops are much more systematically organized, and that the work is split up into various subdivisions, so that each mechanic works only upon a mere fragment of his trade. It is said that in the Waltham shops a watch passes through the hands of seventy or eighty different workmen. It would be impossible for the young artisan to acquire anything like a general or scientific knowledge of his trade in a regular workshop. At the most he could become only a fragment of a workman. In several of the wood and iron trades. this splitting-up process has been going on until a generally skilled artisan in them is becoming almost unknown. It seems reasonable that this difficulty may be met and overcome by an industrial and technical education which will make workmen in the start by sending out graduates who understand the general application of scientific principles in the use of tools and machinery. There will in the nature of things always be a demand for the general artisan in the management of large establishments, and he will possess that great advantage over his fellow-workman who has only got a small section of his trade.

This transition in our manufactures and commerce demands a corresponding change in the education of the industrial classes; and it is almost universally conceded, by those who have considered the question, that manual and technical instruction, while acquiring a trade, will supply this want. It is the trained hand that can turn general knowledge and sound theories to practical account, and thus secure the physical prosperity which results from steady and remunerative employment. It is this which can redeem labor from its servile tendency; for when labor is pursued without skill or cultivation it is very sure to deteriorate into mere brute force. Here, then, is the idea distinctly presented to our mind: we know what is wanted, and it is occupying our earnest attention in its gradual development to an established method. We know that the advance of an idea has in some instances been singularly tardy. But the experiment has been tried in Europe and on a small scale in the United States. Public-spirited citizens in our large cities should place sufficient sums of money at the disposal of the educational authorities to inaugurate such schools in accordance with the peculiar wants and industries of the locality; and much of the time and means now expended in studies which only serve to gratify taste, and will never be of service to the pupils, might be more profitably devoted to practical lessons in the proper pursuits to be followed in after-life.

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