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A revolution of this nature in the methods of production threatens above all the prosperity of French industry, and more particularly the welfare of that of Paris.

Now, it is more particularly in the parent-industries, comprising various trades or specialties having numerous points of resemblance, the work in which is of a similar character and renders necessary, to a great extent, the same class of tools, that the system of apprenticeship is gradually disappearing, while employers are powerless to remedy the evil, however sincere may be their desire to do so. For these great industries, the only means of raising the standard of technical knowledge is the establishment of apprenticeship-schools.

Animated with a desire to avert a condition so ruinous to the moral and material interests of the people, the city of Paris and the Government of France have resorted to the policy of industrial education, as altogether the best remedy which experience and practical results have yet devised. Opinions to the same effect have been formed on this side of the Atlantic by many persons who are fully competent to form an opinion from having devoted themselves with the greatest attention to this question. Take, for example, the conclusions of the Boston School Committee, perhaps the most distinguished authority on educational questions in the United States, and who report that they believe industrial training, or the training of the hand and eye, and thereby the mind as well, is an invaluable element of education, and deserves recognition and support; and, while they express an opinion adverse to teaching actual trades in elementary schools in a complete manner or extent, still they recommend teaching the minor arts as in the industrial schools in Cambridge, Gloucester, and Boston, wherein it is proved

that courses in industrial training may be devised suited for different ages, and that such training might begin in the primary schools, and be continued in the grammarschools, possibly even further, to correspond with the literary training given in the high-schools. As to whether the proposed industrial training would interfere with the other studies, they quote an authority on the "half-time " system of education, which says, "There is a special mutual influence between the school and the factory which improves the quality of the work done in both." And, in conclusion, the committee express a feeling in favor of introducing into the public school ample and fundamental industrial training, for they believe that such training is an invaluable element of education, suited to develop and help all, whatever their future career.

These views are of momentous importance. They come from the commercial and industrial emporium of that part of the country which is most interested in the subject, and they recognize the want of industrial training which now exists and oppresses industry, but they also recognize the necessity and feasibility of introducing it as a fundamental element in public instruction.

Mr. Edward T. Steel, President of the Board of Public Education for the City of Philadelphia, in his annual report of 1881, is not less emphatic in his devotion to industrial education. In his opinion, manual and intellectual education should be regarded as equally necessary to the welfare and safety of the state, and should command equal opportunity of acquisition; and it seems more essential to him that the knowledge of a trade or occupation should be acquired before arriving at manhood, for intellectual training may cover every period of a lifetime.

He holds that there is no kind of ignorance more to be feared by our social and political institutions than that which knows no handicraft or special occupation upon which it may depend for the necessaries of life. When illiteracy is joined with untutored hands, a type of humanity is reached more dangerous than the uncivilized subjects of barbarous tribes. He alludes to the public disorders, when recently the most desperate and reckless of that class assailed the business enterprises of the country; and to the fact that few of those who composed the alarming mobs had any knowledge of skilled employment, when it is equally true that during that season of business stagnation, as a rule, the regular trades and skilled occupations afforded a fair living support. The fact, he says, is becoming better understood that, unless education embraces manual as well as mental training, it will fail for want of thoroughness, and that, when the intellectual attainments which properly belong to the trades are made to lead into them, they will rank first among the occupations as practical results due to the above theories and principles.

These observations come from the right quarter, for the growth and riches of Philadelphia depend almost entirely upon her varied and numerous industries. She has become great and populous from the spoils of labor. There was a fitness in her owning the first school of artindustry established in any American city—that already adverted to in the Hollingsworth Building-which has seized upon public favor, and is becoming identified with the needs and tendencies of her useful arts. Without doubt its influence will be great, for it will lead to similar institutions, as the living representation of its industry.

CHAPTER XIV.

Application of experience-Speculative improvement tardy—Franklin's discovery not applied for one hundred years-Industrial education in the United States rendered simple-Classification of industrial schools into three kinds-Each described-The developing plan of Ruggles-The one for teaching mechanic art recommended, and the reasons stated— Public education a fundamental maxim-It ought to be for the greatest number-Manual training in public schools-Law in Massachusetts -The great body of the people employed-Education should, therefore, form an ability for the business of life-Intellectual training at the expense of manual and social virtue-Division of labor, and development of art-The children and their employment-Mr. MacAlister's address-Inexpensiveness of industrial education shown-Absolute necessity of manual training-Education at public expense-Reliance on the state-Form of government depends upon people-How children are taught In an ignorant society man becomes debased-Education should be for useful purpose-Multiplicity of employments, and the inducement to self-perfection-Training the great mass of workers a matter of life or death-Illustrations-Its proper place allotted it— Richard Grant White-Special trades not favored in public schools -Working-people not opposed to the manual element in educationThe reason why they should not be unfriendly to it-Spring Garden Institute-Examples of working-men receiving instruction-Night-schools attended by working-people for studies relating to industry—Encouragement from extensive firms and corporations illustrated by an example -Opportunities for industrial education-Industrial establishments willing to aid-Object of industrial education-Wendell Phillips-Lord Brougham's remark-Professor Smith's views-Views of the Boston School Committee-Expenditure in the École municipal d'Apprentis— Effect on Paris-Graduates of our schools-Professor Runkle's views -Mechanic art of wide application-Confers mental discipline and increases the mental powers.

I HAVE thus glanced at the experience of this and other countries, to show that theoretical views on this sub

ject have been practically illustrated in a great variety of examples. Induction is an application of recognized facts of greater or less generality. A mere logical demonstration of a question has a charm for the mind because it is so satisfactory, but an experimental verification fills both the mind and the senses with a living proof which surpasses simple reason or logic, because it involves the facts of sensibility as well as those of intelligence. When we rely solely upon the speculative powers of the mind, improvements creep tardily along, notwithstanding man's ingenuity or necessities. It was not until the lapse of one hundred years after Franklin had discovered the perfect conductibility of the electric fluid that a galvanic current was found to transmit signals at a distance. The best method of practical wisdom is to profit by the experience of others, and industrial education in the United States is rendered a problem much more simple by the comparative ease with which it has been introduced into public schools elsewhere, and by the gratifying results which have attended it they go far to overthrow the objections set down against its practicability.

Industrial schools ought to be distinguished into three kinds or classes, according to the object for which they are intended:

First. If instruction is to be given with reference to a particular trade or trades, the studies should be special, and such as belong to an apprenticeship proper. There are a number of such schools abroad, but it is doubted whether there is one of this kind in the United States, unless in the Indian schools at Hampton and Carlisle.

Second, is the art-industry school, or such as give instruction in art as applied to industry. This is more espe

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