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schools, if they evince any considerable degree of taste and invention, easily find occupation in their own country. The more distinguished of them are sometimes sent to France for improvement. . . . They" (the schools) "were founded after the Universal Exhibition of 1851, to enable the manufacturers of the country to compete with France in the industrial arts."

Industrial schools in Austria and Hungary have kept pace with those of other countries. They are very numerous in Switzerland, and have been introduced in Italy, Sweden, Denmark, the Netherlands, and even Spain, as a systematic part of public instruction.

We conclude this chapter by saying that we shall return to the subject of industrial education in Europe in one or two of the chapters following.

CHAPTER III.

Industrial Education in Russia-The Practical Technological Institute at St. Petersburg—The Imperial Technical School at Moscow-Exhibits of, at the Exposition of 1876 and 1878-Moscow fitly chosen-Two other schools for teaching trades to boys-Movement in EnglandContinental artisans-British artisans at Paris Exposition, 1867Schools of art-instruction-South Kensington Museum-Walter Smith -French and English methods compared-Spread of art-schools in the United Kingdom-Their effect upon industries requiring art— Comparison of art-products-The leading nation in the industries depending upon art-Advantages stated-The favorable effect upon the artisan-Favorable to morality—The problem abroad.

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I Do not pretend to any special knowledge upon the subject of industrial education in Russia, aside from what may be learned by any one who will take the trouble to read the general report of Governor John W. Hoyt, one of the commissioners of the United States to the CentenExhibition of 1876 (Vol. VIII, page 165). The Russian educational exhibit is referred to in that report with a fullness of description quite justified by the very interesting character of the movement in that empire for technical and practical education combined. The Russian publications and circulars elucidative of the system are set forth, and certainly constitute a chapter in the history of practical instruction which must have a marked effect, not only upon Russia, but in every other country where

professional and technical schools exist. Indeed, the commissioner closes one part of his report with the remark that "what Russia has done for technical education at the Philadelphia Exhibition no man may now estimate. It is certain that the service was very great, and has earned for her the gratitude of all who are at work upon its problems, whether in the Old or New World."

Much useful information is furnished in the report in regard to the Strongonoff Central School of Practical Drawing, and the Pedagogic Museum at St. Petersburg, both of which are important auxiliaries in the development of industrial studies. The institutions, however, that come nearest to the subject of this work are the Practical Technological Institute at St. Petersburg and the Imperial Technical School at Moscow. It is only after having observed and studied their exhibit with great and scrupulous care that the commissioner analyzes and comments upon them as perhaps the most admirable agencies yet employed upon the problem of industrial education. Owing to the backward condition of Russia, it is difficult to obtain reliable statistics, and it is most fortunate that such a competent and disinterested observer as Governor Hoyt had an opportunity to see and hear for himself to the minutest and most complete detail. But our space limits us to a statement of some of the principal facts only, and the impressions which they suggest. The two technical schools are founded nearly upon the same principles. Before entering the institute at St. Petersburg, the candidate must have graduated from one of the middle schools, and must pass a competitive examination. There are two depart

ments, mechanical and chemical. In the mechanical department the course includes a variety of studies having relation to applied mechanics, the art of construction, and mechanical drawing, and a part of the time is employed by the students at manual labor in various workshops and mills belonging to the institute.

The system is as follows: "The practical studies are divided into three courses. In the first course the student works with a chisel and file upon cast iron, performing six consecutive studies; in the second course the students begin upon wrought iron, fulfilling nineteen consecutive tasks; thereafter they are removed to the fitting-shops, where they are obliged to perform fifteen tasks, occupying themselves with turning, cutting screw-threads, and soldering. The last course is in the construction and joining of different engines." During the five years of the course of study, six hundred and forty-eight hours are devoted to manual labor in the workshops. Of these there are four: "The filer's shop with sixty places, each fitted with a vise and the necessary tools for the filer's course; the forging-shop, with ten places; the turningshop, with sixteen places; and the construction-shop. In the first three the students work in alternating sections until they have completed the obligatory courses."

In these shops the students, under the management of experienced masters, begin to exercise in the most simple works, gradually passing to more complicated, and at last finishing with constructions and joinery of all the parts of an engine. Finally, they graduate either as engineers for workshops or for railroads, and their practical teaching has made them skilled workmen in the use of a great variety of tools.

In some of its leading features the Imperial Technical School at Moscow is not unlike the Free Institute in this country at Worcester, and the Manual Training School of the Washington University at St. Louis. It has, for instance, a special division divided into three branches: mechanical construction, mechanical engineering, and technological engineering; and, in connection with these, all the sciences are taught which are considered fundamental or collateral to any given branch in the course, and the students of all the classes are occupied during a stated period of time in practical work in the laboratories and mechanical workshops. These shops are under the management of a technologist or skilled workman, whose duty it is to instruct the pupils in the rudiments of mechanical labor, so that in the first place they become acquainted with all the work of mechanical art, namely, turning, fitting, carpentering, and forging, in the school workshops, and they are then deemed qualified to be admitted to what are called the mechanical works. These latter are distinct from the school workshops, for they are placed upon a commercial footing with hired workmen, accepting and carrying out orders from private individuals for the construction of steam-engines, working-engines, pumps, motors, agricultural machines, etc. It will be seen, therefore, that while the school workshops are designed to impart manual knowledge and dexterity, the mechanical works are for the education of young men in the branches of mechanical engineering and mechanical construction of the highest order. The object of separating the school workshop from the mechanical works was to secure the systematic teaching of elementary prac tical work, and to admit the pupils only to the latter when

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