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the instances of moral and physical injury received in evening hours upon the street or in the haunts of vice. When at length a pupil is found who possesses strength and ability to combine faithful and efficient work during the day with intelligent study at night, he is worthy of higher education. He has passed a test that would have shown serious obstacles to progress in his trade, and enables his superiors to forecast the probabilities of his final success. He has acquired a practical knowledge of the matters which his technical studies would explain and illustrate, and thereby can pursue them to the best advantage.

Now I apprehend that men and children who sacrifice so much to enjoy the advantage of technical training which these schools place within their reach, will not object to a still more practical system of education, during the period of youth, for all. Employers ought to appreciate the important bearing of the subject, and encourage and support every measure for perfecting their workmen at home, instead of importing them from abroad. Extensive business firms and corporations with every desire to discharge their obligations to their employés, and often with a careful regard for their comfort and well-being, seldom give themselves any trouble about their manual instruction. It is pleasant to find at least one employer who felt himself under the necessity of making the utmost exertion and of using every means to instruct as well as employ them. I am glad to notice such a case. I refer to a gentleman who informed me that some thirty years ago he started a railroad-car manufactory of which he was the sole manager and mechanical head. The business embraced about a dozen of the leading trades. He

began with the men he could find in the vicinity, only one of whom had any knowledge of car-building, and others had little mechanical skill of any kind. He selected fifteen of those who were best adapted to that end for a free night-school in technical knowledge. He taught them drawing and the principles of construction, and he soon found a great advance in their efficiency, and that it was the most fortunate plan he could have taken to put his efforts on the surest and quickest road to an intelligent and effective body of men. He educated them until they could advance by their own efforts. It stimulated hope and energy which carried some of them to high attainments, and their attachment to him was such that he always experienced the benefits of their constancy and skill. He still makes his workshops a practical school for boys, almost uniformly with success, and has qualified a large number for usefulness and prosperity. He is never troubled with strikes or trade combinations.

If every manufacturer felt himself under the same necessity of giving some attention to the practical education of his men, success in business would be greatly increased, and the interested and active zeal of their intelligence would be productive of good work and good feeling.

The opportunities for industrial education will be many and varied when the leading business concerns will do something for the education of the young, in order to fit them for useful work and profitable labor. They now receive constant appeals from those having boys for employment. Widowed mothers urge that their boys are greatly endangered for want of something to do, and very often that they stand in need of their assistance to eke

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out a subsistence. When public sentiment understands the importance of manual education, and that it can be successfully made an element in our public-school system, many of our large industrial establishments will provide. practice-shops in connection with the public schools, where shelter, power, and machinery will be furnished at very small cost for practice-lessons, and the work of the scholars will compensate for rent and damaged materials, and the natural faculties so greatly varied in individuals would surely advance from the lowest to the fullest skill.

The true object of industrial education is to make both art and science contribute their ideal influence to our useful pursuits. By this means the artisan is taught the mechanical application of the studies of the philosopher and the artist; and so thought and industry form an alliance of mutual dependence and elevation. In his address to the Harvard students, Wendell Phillips referred to what he called a remarkable comment of Lord Brougham on the life of Romilly, enlarging on the fact that the great reformer of the penal law found all the legislative and all the judicial power of England, its colleges and its bar, marshaled against him, and owed his success to massmeetings and popular instinct. It would be an entire reversal of this passage if the industrial classes themselves were found retarding rather than promoting a reform in their own interests and honor. It would prove that conservatism is not the exclusive privilege of any class. But, whoever opposes the movement, it will go forward. It concerns all classes of our people, for, as Professor Smith says, "unless the technical education of the producing classes in America is provided for better than it is now, that is, general education in the elements of art and science

for every child, and in the practice of industrial skill for youth and workmen, all the great natural advantage of this country in extent and variety of native products will be neutralized and destroyed."

The same author, referring in the same report to the indispensable necessity and great value of industrial training in a general way, observes:

I would impress upon you that this is a question of general and not of special education. The establishment of special industrial schools only, which, after all, is only patchwork veneering, and remedial, not organic and preventive, will not meet the difficulty. That has been tried and failed, and will do so again. You did not dispel illiteracy and ignorance by educating one quarter of one per cent. of the population, but by teaching all; and you will not, by any system of special industrial schools that a community will willingly support, be able to educate even so small a percentage of the whole people as that very insignificant fraction, nor accomplish more for industrial skill by them than the education of a few monks in the middle ages did for the general education of the people, without common schools. Our general education must include the elements of art and science, taught to every child in every school during the whole period of schoollife, and in reasonable proportion of time to that devoted to other profitable subjects, before special industrial schools. are aught but playthings, which they have been and will continue to be whenever and wherever they have been established, without the preliminary preparation for them has been provided in the common schools.

There is no country in the world to-day that can absolutely ignore public education in art and science without becoming impoverished. There is none, inhabited by white races, that has made so little provision for it as we have; and, as a consequence, no other country imports so large a proportion of the products of skilled labor as

America; and that means a national leakage where there should be a spring of wealth; raw materials exported, manufactured goods imported; pennies-worths sent away, to pay for dollars-worths brought here. It seems perfectly unaccountable that, while the general education of the people has been so admirably provided for, even if too limited in scope, through being too exclusively literary and theoretical, and the technical education of the professional classes developed in the most complete manner, yet, though apprenticeships to trades have gone out of fashion, the artisan and mechanic are left without technical education, and, generally speaking, the American workman has to work by rule of thumb. Yet, so it is. I invite those who do not like this condition of things to remedy it.

While you cannot find in any country a body of men with more average intelligence and brightness than American mechanics, you can find none with so few opportunities of improvement, in their several crafts, by education.

As a consequence, our public taste and industrial skill are about in a similar position as the same were in England in 1851. If we are to make a change as radical and complete as was made in that country, we must adopt similar means; and if the political economists are wise in their generation, they will find that there is no time to be lost in providing technical education for working-men.

Many other authorities might be cited to show the tendency of opinion. I give but one more. It is a passage from the report of the Boston School Committee for 1878, which I abstract from the same address :

The question of teaching trades in our schools is one of vital importance. If New England would maintain her place as the great industrial center of the country, she must become to the United States what France is to the rest of Europe-the first in taste, the first in design, the first in skilled workmanship. She must accustom her

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