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up of the programme of systematic instruction in the mechanical arts, for its introduction in the year 1868 into the workshops, and also for the preparation of the necessary auxiliaries to study. In the year 1870, at the Exhibition of Manufactures at St. Petersburg, the school exhibited its methods of teaching mechanical arts, and from that time they have been introduced into all the technical schools of Russia.

"The auxiliaries of education employed in teaching mechanical arts were exhibited at the International Exhibition of Vienna and that of Philadelphia, in order that specialists in these matters might become acquainted with them.

"The auxiliaries of education appointed for the teaching of any mechanical work whatever-for example, fitters' work—are classed in three categories; to the first of these belong the collections of instruments employed in fitters' work, with which the beginner must make himself perfectly familiar before entering upon work, and afterward to use these instruments during the execution of the work itself.

"To this category relate all those collections of models indispensable to the teacher of fitters' work, for the purpose of demonstration: the collection of instruments most in use for measuring, full size; the collection of instruments, full size, for drilling metals; the collection of instruments, full size, for finishing, from the smithy to the fitting-shop inclusive.

"Models of files, increased to twenty-four times the ordinary size, for the purpose of demonstrating the surface of the incision; the collection of models of instruments employed in cutting screws and nuts, increased six times ordinary size, for the study of the direction of the angles of incision; the collection of models of drills, increased six

times, for the practical study of the cutting angles; and, lastly, the collection of instruments and apparatus for teaching the tracing of yet unworked metal articles. We consider it our duty to draw the attention of specialists to this last collection, for the organization of which we are indebted to our skillful instructor of fitters' work, Mr. Savetkin, mechanical engineer.

"To the second category belong the collections of models appointed for the systematic and gradationary study of hand-labor in the fitter's art. These collections have the same signification with regard to the work of fitting as is allowed to scales and exercises in instruction in music. They are so ordered that the beginner may be enabled to overcome by certain gradations the difficulties which present themselves before him. It will be sufficient to glance. at the adjoined detailed list of objects contained in these collections, and to examine attentively every object exhibited, to be convinced; and if the pupil, under the guidance of the teacher, carefully fulfills the study of all the numbers embraced in the collections, or rather the educational programme of the art of fitting, he must inevitably, and in the most rational manner, render himself familiar with all the known practical hand-labor of this art.*

"Hence we arrive at the conviction, without any difficulty, that with such a system of teaching the supervision of the teacher over the pupils, and his observation of their

* In the apprentice classes each student is not obliged to complete every number in the programme; but the work is nevertheless so divided that he becomes familiar with each piece. While a student is making, for example, No. 2, his right-hand neighbor is working on No. 1, and his left-hand neighbor on No. 3, so that he sees how each one is made. He is obliged, moreover, to listen to the explanations which the instructor gives to his neighbors, and is himself afterward examined on them. The pupils in the prac tical section are, however, obliged to make every piece on the list.

progress, become exceedingly easy. He need only remark that every number of the programme is executed satisfactorily by the pupils, and, putting the following one before him, give the requisite explanations for the succeeding work.

"In such a case, the fact of a great number of pupils being occupied at the same time will present no great disadvantage, nor will it increase the arduousness of his duty to any considerable degree. And, further, it will be a matter of impossibility that a pupil who has been working during a few years in the workshop should fail to be able to use the drill, or to trace a part to be worked, though he handle satisfactorily the chisel or the file.

"To the third category belongs the collection of those articles, or parts of machines, in the execution of which all the practical hand-labor of the fitter's art is successively repeated, having been acquired during the studies of the previous course.

"What we have said in relation to the manner of study of the work of fitting must be accepted also with regard to the other branches of labor, namely, wood-turning, carpentering, smithy, and foundry-work.

“In conclusion, we consider it our duty to observe that ten years had [in 1873] already elapsed since the programmes of instruction in the mechanical arts were introduced into the workshops of the school, and they have been found to attain in the most brilliant manner the aim proposed in their introduction.



ADAM SMITH'S views, 50.

Agricultural and mechanical col-

leges, 78.

Auguste Comte's views, 90.
Axioms in political economy, 48.

American Institute of Instruction, Beauty a universal element, 158.


American boys and the trades, 185-

Angell, George S., on increase of
crime, 345.

Applied science, 321-328.

Beautiful and the useful, 178.
Besançon municipal school, 14.
Boston school committee, 292.
British art-education, 36.

artisans sent to the Continent in
1867, 36.

Apprenticeship, 145, 178, 196, 198, British increase in art productions, 40.

245, 246.

Artist and artisan, 43.

Art bestows value on material, 54,

55, 177.

Arts, the fine and useful, 90, 91.

Art of drawing, 117.

decorative, at Pompeii, 137.

in ceramics, 151.

in pottery, 153.

art-schools, 39.

Clarke's (John S.) views, 115.
Classical learning, 334-336.

Chemistry in the art of dyeing, 156.
Children, early education of, 2.
Cincinnati School of Design, 244.
City and Guilds of London Institute,


in school at Trenton, N.J., 153, 154. Cramming process, 357.

Art-education, 105.

Art-industry, 177.

Art, mechanic, 304, 305.

dependent upon science, 315.

Art, Morisco, 139.

Art-needlework, 228-231.

Art applied to industry and science,

Art-schools in England, 249.

Arts ruled by similar principles, 258.
Auchmuty's (R. T.) contributions to

trade-schools in New York, 222.
Austria, industrial schools in, 28.
Art-workmanship, its influence on

the condition of the men, 359-

the antidote, 359.

Decoration and ornament, 126.
Denmark, industrial school in, 28.
Drawing, applications of, 132, 133,
to colored patterns, 155.

a practical art, 157.

a required study, 159, 160.
in Boston schools, 162.

present system of teaching, 162–

ornament and design in, 164, 165.
mechanical, 165-168.

importance, by Prof. Krüsi, 168.
as a means of intellectual disci-
pline, 170-173.

Drawing, report of Royal Commis- | Industrial schools at Besançon, 14.

sioners (English), 173.

law in Massachusetts, 159.
in the order of studies, 117.
as an art, 117-174.

indispensable to useful art, 306.
Dwight School, Boston, 227.

École Municipal d'Apprentis, 13.
des Arts et Métiers, 22.
Education, duty of Government, 112-


equality of, 5.

by lessons of experience, 101, 102.
of Indians at Hampton and Car-
lisle, 355.

national systems of, 336-338.
at Athens, Rome, Germany, France,
Scotland, England, 336-338.
need of practical, 106.
suggested by the senses and man's
physical structure, 109-111.
England, education of her working-
men, 35.

Eye, culture of the, 6, 96.

Finsbury Technical College, 319.
France, industrial history of, 10-12.
Government aid, 25.

Germany, industrial schools in, 26.
Gladstone's eulogium on Wedgwood,
148, 149.
Government aid, 112.

Great Britain, commerce of, 12.
Greek and Greece, 92-98.

Hand-culture, 6, 8, 96.

Hand-tools and hand-skill, 73, 313.
Holyoke College, 94.

Ideas, want of power in mere, 5.
Idleness a source of vice and crime,

Illinois Industrial University, 60.
Immigration, 141–147.
Industrial education, 1.

Industrial school-is it adapted to
the United States? 218-220.
Industrial schools first in France, 13.

of the Christian Brothers, 15.

of MM. Chaix & Co., 16.

at Creuzot, 18.

at Neuwelt, 19.
at Mulhouse, 20.
at Limoges, 21.
in Europe, 198-218.

moral influence of, 193-195.
in the United States, 221-247.
in New York city, 222.
in Trenton, N. J., 228.
in Montclair, N. J., 231–236.
Spring Garden Institute, 241.
in West Washington, D. C., 243.
the working-man's best hope, 365.
classified, 272-274.

of S. P. Ruggles, 274-277.
Industry, moral influence of, 347-

public instruction in, 249.

mode of instruction, 261-263.
Industrial science, 321-328.
Inventions and inventive faculties of
Americans, 331–334.

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