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ful. The artist who designs a magnificent building, or a masterpiece in painting, enjoys the happiness as well as the temperament of genius. It is the same to a degree with the minor arts which minister to our daily comfort; and the workman who fabricates a cup, a vase, a bronze, or any object of utility in which form, color, and design are embodied, experiences an emotion of the same kind, and an intellectual pleasure which he makes apparent on his work. The art in both cases is of the same general nature. Like the leaf and the fruit that grow joined on the same stalk, there is a friendly relation. The idea comes from the unseen world within-the masterpiece of the highest art to please the eye, and the object of utility as an accessory to man's happiness. The art of the artisan and that of the artist may differ in the objects to which they are applied, but they have so much in common that the same fundamental graces and beauties play an important part in their respective studies. Art is no respecter of persons, and she acknowledges her offspring, however humble their origin. She is a powerful enchantress, and is to-day engaged in the personal service and gratification of the art-workman wherever employed. She not only embellishes his work but his life, and refines his industry with an exquisite taste. His sentiments run along with his hands and eyes and strike into his very temper, making his toil less wearisome, and giving him many delightful thoughts and happy moments to relieve the burden and perplexity of his labor.

In a work consecrated to the problem of industrial education, I have commenced with a presentation of actual facts, and have, therefore, given this brief account of what exists abroad. A successful example is of more

practical value than the most confident affirmations. What is industrial education? What are its merits and objects, and, above all, what power does it possess of administering to some useful purpose in the productive arts of life? Now, if we can speak from things we have seen, and where the whole problem in question has been worked out in all its details, we can answer these questions with exactness and precision, because we know what we are talking about. Hence the necessity of consulting successful examples abroad, when they have such a direct bearing upon the current facts in our history.

CHAPTER IV.

The United States-Dependent upon Europe-Want of trained skill-Our cotton and woolen fabrics superior-Pottery and other articles from abroad-The material produced in the United States purchased backRussia and other countries-Art pervades all things-Political economy-Its maxims-American taste for luxury-Cheap lands scarcerIndustrial classes must rely upon trades-Effect of making what we necd-Adam Smith on home-trade-We should acquire skill-Raise wages-Raw material in the United States-Causes of national prosperity-Our natural resources-Practical education-Linen, hemp, wool-Other articles-Effect of training industrial classes-The value put on material by art-Its general effect-New England-Massachusetts-Arts and manufactures of-Education in-The Worcester Free Institute-The Illinois Industrial University.

We cannot turn to our own country without deep anxiety, for the subject of industrial education has a special interest for the people of the United States. The wealth and prosperity of the nation essentially depend upon the extent and perfection of its industry.

No modern people, with a country so rich in its own. resources, has cultivated less sparingly its peculiar energies. Indeed, an effort to convince our representative men of the necessity of industrial education is regarded as an equivocal innovation, and in many quarters is met with a discouraging sneer; and it is suggested that American enterprise and pluck will supply the deficiencies of ignorance. The example of other nations should

serve to rouse us to a sense of our condition, or we shall be subjected to all the consequences of a dangerous foreign rivalship. With the means of supplying ourselves, we lavish our treasure upon other countries for commodities which could be made by our own artisans, if they were properly instructed in the theoretical knowledge of their art. The natural resources of the countries upon whom we lavish such immense sums are greatly inferior to our own; but, by their system of educational training, they have raised. themselves to wealth, and made us dependent upon them to supply a considerable portion of our wants and luxuries. Switzerland, with its sterile rocks and arid mountains; Germany, with little naturally to rely upon, except its sleepless toil and patient industry; France, that had no common school until now; and England, that cannot produce food to feed her own people-furnish us with such immense quantities of things and conveniences as almost to defy belief; and our importing merchants have their agents ransacking the industries of Europe for the regulation of our markets and the disposition of our resources.

Our industries are supplanted by those abroad for want of well-trained mechanical skill at home; and this will continue, to our superlative disadvantage, until we become convinced of the necessity of educational development in our workshops.

What we need in this country is a correct public opinion on the relation of education to industry. When this becomes a subject of general interest, a great increase of material prosperity may be confidently expected, the interchange of the products of ingenuity will be indefinitely extended, and the influence of individual industry upon the general welfare will be widely felt.

The cotton fabrics of the American loom are perhaps superior to those of other nations; and yet we import from foreign countries cotton goods of inferior quality, because their dyers, designers, and printers can produce a finer appearance and more striking effect on account of their artistic training. Our woolen manufactures excel in durability and firmness, and are now made from material grown in our own country; and yet, from the coat of the rich man to the shawl of the lady, whenever fineness and delicacy are wanted, or brilliant coloring, or tasteful design, the foreign fabric maintains its superiority. Our finest articles of pottery, porcelain, and delft-ware, a great part of our cambrics and muslins, velvets and silks, ribbons and laces, ladies' dresses and shoes, articles of bronze and glass, leather-work, and ornaments of every description, together with a thousand nameless articles of luxury and convenience, must still make a voyage across the Atlantic before we can use them.

It is interesting, in this connection, to remember that the raw material in a considerable part of these commodities is produced in this country, especially cotton, wool, and leather, and exported to Europe, and returned here to be purchased by us at four or five times the price which we received for it. As a consequence, the skilled labor abroad receives the benefit of this prodigious increase of its value, while our own people, perhaps, remain without employment, because they do not possess the necessary skill to produce it. Educate our own people in the knowledge of these beautiful industries, and, instead of paying this vast tribute abroad, we should give employment to millions of our own citizens, keep alive the spirit of enterprise, give new life to our manufactures,

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