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dollars for its endowment and support. In his deed of gift he says: "The aim of this school shall ever be the instruction of youth in those branches of education, not usually taught in the public schools, which are essential and best adapted to train the young for practical life, and especially that such as are intending to be mechanics, or manufacturers, or farmers, may attain an understanding of the principle of science applicable to their pursuits, and will qualify them in the best manner for an intelligent and successful prosecution of their business; and that such as intend to devote themselves to any of the branches of mercantile business shall in like manner be instructed in those parts of learning most serviceable to them; and that such as design to become teachers of common schools may be in the best manner fitted for their calling; and the various schemes of study and courses of instruction shall always be in accordance with this fundamental design, so as thereby to meet a want which our public schools have hitherto but inadequately supplied." The Hon. Stephen Salisbury made an additional gift of two hundred thousand dollars, and said, "This school will not attempt to turn out in this short period an Arkwright, a Stephenson, or a Fulton, but it may give facilities and helps which these great mechanics did not possess."

The Hon. Ichabod Washburn, of Worcester, gave the institute a machine-shop and provided it with its equipments and a fund of five thousand dollars to be expended for stock, and the interest of fifty thousand dollars to provide for contingencies. Besides all these advantages, the locality of the school is highly favorable, for the whole neighborhood is extensively engaged in manufacturing arts and trades of every description. I make a

brief extract from the catalogue of 1880, as follows: "The institute has graduated nine classes, aggregating one hundred and eighty-six students. The ease with which more than ninety per cent of these young men have secured honorable and lucrative employment, in stations for which their training especially prepared them, confirms the confidence of the trustees in the soundness of the general principles upon which the school is organized."

Candidates for admission must give evidence of proficiency in the common English branches of learning. The course of study embraces a period of three years, and, while some studies are pursued by all the classes alike, every student has to select at some time during the first year some department in which he must devote ten hours a week to practice until his graduation—that is to say, for two and a half years' students who select chemistry, work in the laboratory; the civil engineers, at field-work or problems in construction; those who select drawing, in the drawing-room; and those who select physics, in the physical laboratory. The mechanical section practice in the workshop to the end of the term; and after the latter have been sufficiently advanced they receive instruction in designing machinery, and undertake the building of one or more complete machines from their own drawing. The class of last year constructed a Corliss engine; the class of 1880 made an upright reversible engine. Indeed, all the facilities of a first-rate machineshop are offered to the students in this section for obtaining a practical knowledge of the use of tools, the management of machines, and the theory of their construction. In a word, the institution is designed to meet the wants of

those who wish to be prepared as mechanics, civil engineers, chemists, or designers, for the duties of active life with the advantages of a solid education.

The Illinois Industrial University, located at Urbana, Champaign County, Illinois, had its origin in this movement for the higher education of the industrial classes. It is even more richly endowed than the Free Institute at Worcester, and to the union of most of the excellences of the latter it adds many of those belonging to a university. It has a college of agriculture, in which to educate agriculturists and horticulturists; a stock-farm ; an experimental farm, with all the apparatus and breeds of cattle; together with nurseries, orchards, exotics, greenhouses, gardens, and all that can give practical knowledge in farming and aid in the development of an agricultural science. In the college of engineering is the school of mechanical engineering. It aims to fit the students to invent, design, construct, and manage machinery for any branch of manufacture; and the need for men is recognized, who, to a thorough knowledge of the principles of machinery and of the various motors, add the practical skill necessary to design and construct the machines by which these motors are made to work. There is also a college of natural science and one of literature and science; to these are added a school of military science, and a school of art and design. This last school is represented in the catalogue as having a twofold purpose: 1. It affords to the students in the several colleges the opportunity to acquire such knowledge of free-hand drawing as their chosen course may require. 2. It affords to such as have a talent or taste for art, the best facilities for pursuing studies in industrial design

ing or other branches of fine art. Schools of design in Europe and in this country have been found important aids to the higher manufactures, adding to the beauty of fabric and to the skill and taste of workmen. The increased interest in the decorative arts and in the manufactures which they require, has added new importance to the study of drawing and designing. It is the purpose to keep this school of design abreast with the best movements in this direction. The text-books, cabinets, museum, gallery of fine arts, laboratories, and workshops— indeed, the whole course of studies and the ample staff of teachers and assistants-all bear testimony to the practical character of the institution, and the careful attention bestowed upon everything connected with the successful prosecution of the original design of the founders.

CHAPTER V.

Technical schools in the United States-Massachusetts Institute of Technology-Manual School, Washington University-Stevens Institute of Technology-The usefulness of these in this country-Scheme of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and course of study-General Walker on science schools-The School of Mechanics therein, and its course of instruction-Mr. Foley's report-Russian plan of manual teaching-The use of hand-tools still necessary-The Manual School in Washington University, St. Louis—Its plan of teaching shop-work— Pennsylvania Museum and School of Industrial Art-Other technical schools in Philadelphia-Science schools attached to universitiesAgriculture and mechanical colleges under land grants-Some statistics concerning them-In order to be useful, they must teach by practiceThe Massachusetts Institute of Technology a good example-Institutions for the superior education of women-The number of such schools in the United States-Every facility should be afforded for their education-Brief discussion on this subject-Their employment as farmers, decorators, and architects-The numerous trades open to women-Emily Faithful's views-Industrial education of womenEquality of Education-Co-education-Should women pursue the old system of college studies?-This is a utilitarian era-Victor Cousin on the fine arts-Auguste Comte on science-Other thinkers-The Greeks can be studied without studying Greek-Should girls pursue the same studies as the boys, in matters of superior education ?—Advantages of industrial education to women.

THERE are several technical schools in the United States, similar in character to the science and polytechnic schools in Europe-such as the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Boston, the Polytechnic School of Washington University at St. Louis, and the Stevens

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