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Institute of Technology at Hoboken, New Jersey. The studies in each extend through a period of four years, and are to prepare the pupils in the various branches of professional engineering, architecture, and chemistry. A series of workshops are now attached to each of them for instruction in practical mechanics and the use of tools in wood and iron-work, so that, when the courses are completed, the students are prepared by experimental knowledge to engage at once in their chosen occupation. The studies are pretty much the same in all the classes during the first year, and the students then take the course adapted to their future pursuits. It is somewhat different at the institute in Hoboken, as mechanical engineering is there the only special study.

Without going into particulars, it may be briefly said that the object in these schools is the special and thorough training of engineers, architects, and chemists, in attainments far advanced beyond the means or knowledge possessed by our colleges or universities. This system of teaching is called technical, because it involves the application of constructive principles with the greatest exactness in mechanical structure as well as in execution, so that the mechanician and engineer can meet the wants of their professions without the mistakes which usually arise when experiments are conducted in ignorance of the principles of mechanical powers or motors. Schools of this kind are therefore designed for professional purposes and professional men alone. And in a country having the longest and most elevated bridges in the world, the most extended railroads, a system of internal improvements that spans the continent, together with the cultivation of a steam-power that plows up both land and sea, and has

created an era in every branch of human activity—to say nothing of our inventions, our mining, metallurgic, and manufacturing interests, and our perfectly adjusted and delicate machinery, which ranks among the wonders of the world-it is, I say, among the most practical and useful aids to our progress that men should be in the leading places who are learned in all that is known of natural and mechanical philosophy. And it is gratifying to know that teaching to this end has been attended with triumphant results, and that our young men with scientific bias need no longer resort to the schools of Europe to learn the principles of economic science.

The main scheme of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology is to afford instruction adapted to the wants of those who will be engaged in professional pursuits, in which a knowledge of some branch of applied science is useful or indispensable. Its regular curriculum comprises nine courses, viz., one in civil and topographical engineering; one in mechanical engineering; one in mining engineering, or geology and mining; one in building and architecture; one in chemistry; one in metallurgy; one in natural history; one in physics, and a general course containing several subdivisions. Many other branches are also established, such as mathematics, the French and German languages, English history and literature, political science, international law, mechanical drawing, stone-cutting, microscopy, photography, mechanics, electricity, and a very great list of other details and subjects of study, the mere statement of which occupies fourteen printed pages in the catalogue of 1882-83. Indeed, there is no branch of science, as applied to industry, which is not embraced in the courses.

To aid the students in gaining the knowledge specially adapted to their intended professions, there are attached to the institute museums, collections in natural history, geology, and mineralogy, laboratories, and workshops, mechanical patterns, and machinery of various kinds, all of which are used to illustrate practically the theory and principles of industrial science. In aid of the practical studies of the school, and as a means of familiarizing the students with the actual details of their studies, they are required, in term-time, to make visits of inspection to machine-shops, mills, furnaces, and chemical works, and to visit important buildings and engineering constructions within convenient reach, and in vacations more extended excursions are made for the survey of mines and geological features, and for the study of metallurgical works and noted specimens of engineering.

The students in the course of mechanical engineering are required to devote a considerable amount of time to work in carpentry, wood-turning, pattern-making, molding and casting, forging, chipping and filing, and planing and turning the metals; and all the students in the other departments are allowed to take shop-work when the time will not interfere with their regular studies. The shops and laboratories have been provided with the more important hand and machine tools, so that they can acquire a direct knowledge of the nature of metals and woods, and some manual skill in the use of tools and of applying science required in a variety of mechanic arts. The courses of the institute extend through four years, and for proficiency in any one of them the degree of bachelor of science is conferred, and the degree of doctor of science has been authorized for advanced courses of study.

From this brief account, it is seen that the Massachusetts Institute of Technology is devoted to the higher training in utilitarian science, and to the cultivation of the intellectual faculties so as to harmonize the objects of education with the wants and requirements of the age; and I think it is not extravagant to say that its rich and varied programmes of study and the attainments and devotion of its instructors will compare favorably with many of the polytechnic schools in Europe, upon which such immense sums have been expended.

Concerning the particular standing of science schools in our educational system, General Francis A. Walker, who is at the head of this one, is reported recently to have said:

"I would have the highest class of schools that teach industrial or mechanical work like our own institute, the Sheffield School at Yale, and the Troy Polytechnic, and the classical or literary universities and colleges in the same grade, the graduates of the mechanic schools conceded the same standing and as much social recognition as the bachelors of arts receive from the world. The primary and grammar and high schools should teach the rudiments of mechanics as they do the elements of letters, so that those who choose to enter the industrial colleges shall have that preparation that is essential to success in the higher courses pursued there.”

The suggestion here made comes from one who has a correct appreciation of the value and purpose of practical education. The method he proposes would familiarize the students in the grammar and high schools, who desire to be received into the technical schools, in the elements of mathematics, chemistry, drawing, and mechanics, and

would enable them to pass at once into the full benefits of technical lessons. The importance of previous preparation is as obvious in regard to these institutions as to those of a merely literary character.

It is a marked feature in this school that, although near the oldest seat of learning in this country, it has broken away from the beaten track and teaches the material forces of the physical world instead of the verbal learning of the ancient one. It recognizes and honors the vital importance of the new professional callings and scholarship which arise out of the altered social condition of men, and from the progress of scientific discovery to which the world mainly owes its present advanced condition. It was planned and organized to imbue its pupils with a proper sense of and skill in the great achievements of modern art; and its great service in the work of real knowledge will at no distant day elevate it to the educational rank and honor of the other colleges and universities.

But the feature of this school which is particularly germane to our subject is the mechanical branch, with a two years' course which takes the form of systematic shop-work, and which is designed for the instruction of those who wish to enter upon industrial pursuits rather than to become scientific engineers. Many can not afford the time and cost for the professional courses who intend to follow some one of the mechanic arts, either as a skilled workman or as a master-mechanic. All such who have completed an ordinary grammar-school course may enter the school of mechanics, and continue their general studies in algebra, geometry, physics, drawing, and French, while a considerable portion of their time will be devoted

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