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the variety and beauty required by modern fastidiousness. Machinery drives the sharp tool in the planing-mill and the delicate one of the Waltham watch-maker. Notwithstanding this, hand-tools are still the bases of all industrial art. Their actual use is still necessary for many important purposes. In fitting, finishing, and modeling, they are indispensable; and it is equally true that the contrivances we call machine-tools are the same in principle as those which are used by the hand of man. They have prodigiously increased productive efficiency, and given greater accuracy to mechanical constructions; but whether the tool is used by the hand or placed in a frame, it is still a tool, and presents the same principle of mechanics. Says Mr. Knight: "Neither the tool nor the machine has any force of itself. In one case the force is in the arm; in the other in the water, the steam, or the animal that turns the wheel. The distinctions which have been taken between a tool and a machine are really so trivial, and the line of separation between one and the other is so slight, that we can only speak of both as common instruments for adding to the efficiency of labor." Indeed, we can hardly form a mental picture of a people without tools; and if we should forget their use, it would not be very long before we should have but few of the characteristics of civilization, and all the mechanical giants of our arts and industry would cease to exist within a single generation.

The science of tools is therefore imperative, and this is realized in the programmes of hand-labor instruction which form so prominent a feature in the technical schools at the two Russian capitals, and is regarded as matter of the utmost importance in counteracting the de

teriorating effect of specially adapted machinery in the division of labor.

The whole plan of study received such flattering testimonials at the expositions, and has excited such a remarkable degree of interest among the friends of industrial education, that notwithstanding its length I feel justified in adding, by way of appendix to this chapter, the account of the school at Moscow by its director, M. Victor Della Vos, as the best statement of the practical details and arguments in favor of that method.

A school for manual instruction was also established in 1879 as a permanent branch or part of the Washington University at St. Louis, in which the students divide their working-hours as nearly as possible between mental and manual exercises. As this is one of the few manual training-schools which have been attached to any university or college in the United States, and as, moreover, it is claimed to be a successful application of the Russian plan, it may be permitted to present with some detail the programme of exercises for the pupils.

The course of studies covers three years. In mental training, instruction is thorough but not extended, and would probably correspond with that of our high-schools. English language and literature are the only philological studies in the course.

In manual training, special attention is paid to drawing throughout, embracing three general divisions-freehand drawing, mechanical drawing, and technical drawing or draughting-illustrating conventional colors and signs, and systems of architecture or shop-drawings.

Workshop instruction is given in a carpenter-shop, a turning-shop, a machine-shop, and a blacksmith-shop. All

the machinery is driven by a fine Corliss steam-engine. The theory of workshop instruction is so completely set forth in the annual catalogue of 1881-'82, and the argument in favor of applying education to industry, is so carefully and clearly stated, that notwithstanding the space it may occupy it is thought desirable to give it at some length.

The results of experience have abundantly confirmed the views of the managers of the school, and they declare that

The zeal and enthusiasm of the students have been developed to a most gratifying degree, extending into all the departments of work. The variety afforded by the daily programme has had the moral and intellectual effect expected, and an unusual degree of sober earnestness has been shown. Success in drawing, or shop-work, has often had the effect of arousing the ambition in mathematics and history, and vice versa.

Progress in the two subjects, drawing and shop-work (and we had little previous knowledge of what could be done with boys as young as these of the first-year class), has been quite remarkable. To be sure there was no doubt of the final result, but the progress has been more rapid than it seemed reasonable to expect. The secondyear class contains already several excellent draughtsmen, and not a few pattern-makers of accuracy and skill. The habit of working from drawings and to nice measurements has given the students a confidence in themselves altogether new. This is shown in the readiness with which they undertake the execution of small commissions in behalf of the school, or for the students of other departments. In fact, the increased usefulness of our students is making itself felt at home, and in several instances the result has been the offer of business positions too tempting to be rejected. This drawback, if it can be called one, the school must always suffer. The better educated

and trained our students become, the stronger will be the temptations offered to them outside, and the more difficult it will be for us to hold them through the course.

Parents and guardians should avoid the bad policy of injuring the prospects of a promising son or ward, by grasping a small present pecuniary advantage, at the cost of far greater rewards in the future.

In another important respect, our expectations have been more than realized; namely, in our ability to introduce class-methods in giving instructions in the theory and use of tools.

All divisions in the shops have thus far been limited to twenty pupils, and, as a rule, all members of a division have just the same work.

The exercises have been two hours long, though often the students have asked for longer work. It is but due to the pupils of the school to say that they have uniformly seconded all efforts looking toward good order and good manners. No little surprise has been expressed by visitors, at seeing how quietly and independently twenty boys can work for a couple of hours in the same room. An examination of the rules, given on another page, will show the care and consideration expected of all during shop-practice. Though all classes handle keen-edged tools, no serious accident has happened, and very rarely have small injuries been received.

The splendid success of this institution is due to the skillful management of Professor C.W. Woodward, its director.

The Pennsylvania Museum and School of Industrial Art provides in the most comprehensive way an advanced education in the art of industrial design, especially for those who wish to take advantage of its facilities to obtain a thorough knowledge of the application of design to manufactures. The course consists of drawing, modeling, the study of color, and its application and disposition in

design, both in the round and in the flat. Descriptive geometry, as connected with drawing and design, together with free perspective, also forms a part of the course; and the students are called upon to prepare original designs applicable to industrial purposes in each of the branches studied. There is no charge for tuition, and either sex may be applicants for admission.

Several of the technical schools in Philadelphia exhibit a similar course of instruction, especially the Franklin Institute and the Spring Garden Institute, and the same plan is to be introduced into Girard College. These institutions are enlarging their facilities for promoting the application of science to the useful purposes of the mechanic arts, and are preparing the means to teach the students in the use of tools by the actual hand-work of construction.

The growing interest for practical education has reached some of the most distinguished universities and colleges in the country, the Lawrence Scientific School and the School of Mining and Practical Geology at Harvard, and similar institutions at Yale, Columbia, and Princeton show how grandly the new philosophy in teaching scientific and industrial-has won its way into the most conservative and venerable seats of learning.

Among the newer generation of universities, Cornell in the East and Michigan University in the West, and the University of California on the Pacific, were founded upon modern opinions, and from the first they established courses of instruction, with university honors, for professional training in science and mechanics, in mathematics and design, and their application to agriculture, to hygiene and to the industrial arts; and they have already

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