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equivalent to a dower-if we look at marriage from a purely prosaic point of view.

The whole subject of industrial education, in its relation to woman, is here suggested, and in a great measure begun. A false standard of social life has not permitted her to engage in any truly useful labor, or even to teach her children in the smallest detail of practical knowledge. This absurdity will soon have a severe gauntlet to run, and something more will be required of our ladies than to play on the piano and make a formal round of calls, while the husband is deeply immersed in his business pursuits. Let no one think that the author is unfriendly to the refinements of polished society, or disposed to underrate the importance of its graces and embellishments. But surely all ought to consent at this time to give quite as much regard to the special training of women in the various departments of useful labor for which she may be fitted, as to any other subject affecting her welfare, and that this is among the questions of the day which require an unbiased and enlightened consideration.

Indeed, many of the questions concerning the liberal education of women have an answer in these noble institutions, and there is now a tendency in public opinion in favor of their admission to every educational advantage enjoyed by the other sex. In England, colleges have been established for girls with college courses of study, identically the same as those pursued in colleges for young men, and the great Universities of Oxford and Cambridge have provided for the university education of women, and the London University makes no distinction in sex in bestowing its degrees. In the United States we find some

of our colleges taking the same course, and in others they are admitted on the same footing to the same studies, and even to the same classes as the boys. We do not stop now to discuss the problem of co-education in superior courses of instruction; that is being worked out as a practical question in several institutions, and I have not the imprudence to engage in that discussion at present. It may be remarked, however, that the general result shows that the dangers predicted from co-education have not been realized, and that the system is still viewed as favorable to both sexes. This is the conclusion reported at the Cornell University, and at the Michigan University, where co-education has existed for several years.

This, however, is not the end of the question. No doubt the girls will compare favorably with the boys, and quite likely excel them, especially where the studies are of a character to exercise the memory. The friends of co-education have our sincere sympathies, but we fear they overlook a very material consideration; and that is, whether the college courses of studies constitute a true and wise system of instruction for girls. It is a profound conviction pervading society at this time, that the greatest ignorance of every useful art or profitable acquirement marks the notorious incompetency of young men. who have received a college degree. They have spent the precious period of youth in painful and laborious studies which, in the progress of modern learning, have become obsolete. The connection between any period of civilization and its accompanying methods of education should be as true of this age as of any one that has preceded it. This is an era of utilitarianism, and perhaps this country is very much so. Education should, therefore, be com

paratively utilitarian. But it is thought by many that we are given over to an excess of utilitarianism and scientific realism, at the expense of refinement and beauty. This exaggerated attention to the useful will not appear to be unfriendly to the ideal when we bear in mind that whenever the arts of necessity have been appreciated, sculpture, painting, design, and ornamentation have flourished most, and something of their beauty has been transferred to the common articles and uses of life. The remedy for industrial realism, remarks a writer in the "Revue des Deux Mondes," is to make things beautiful as well as useful, and of scientific realism to teach the true intelligence of things, and their immediate applicability to the purposes of human life. Victor Cousin thinks that the fine arts are too disinterested and sublimated for use. They are only for beauty, and to inspire a sense of the ideal. Fortunately, he limits them to three only-painting, sculpture, and poetry; and these, he thinks, should be entirely emancipated from everything except the unity and grandeur of art. This does not agree with the ideas of classical art, for the Greeks, who were the founders of all art, included music, rhetoric, letters, eloquence, philosophy, and the dance among the Sacred Nine, and made them all coordinate with the needs and servitudes of life. They constituted a practical part of Greek education, and entered into almost everything of value or interest in their daily history.

The same exclusiveness has been claimed by Auguste Comte for the influence of science, who says that the progress of analysis has tended constantly to specialties in science, which ends too often in extinguishing the ardor for science which should be cultivated for itself alone.

It would appear, from the reflections of these philosophers, that all attempts to apply fine art or high science would be to invade their proper domain, and to destroy the sense of the ideal; and that to employ them for any useful purpose, under the pretext of imitation or design, would be to degrade the standard of their infinite perfection. On the other hand, such thinkers as Helmholtz, Tyndall, Huxley, and Spencer teach that practice has its sources in the most elevated and fruitful speculations; and we know that the greatest artists have embellished useful articles with the work of their hands. All knowledge is valuable only as it contributes to the elevation and happiness of man, and all art is useful because a necessary requisite to our social advancement. They warm the genius and the heart by their exquisite beauty, and evolve those delicate perceptions which lead to cultivation and refinement. Herbert Spencer has remarked that, without painting, sculpture, music, poetry, and the emotions produced by natural beauty of every kind, life would lose half its charm. So far from useless are the training and gratification of the tastes, that the time will come when they will occupy a much greater share of human life than


But to return from this brief digression to the superior instruction for girls. Now, if its object is to prepare them for useful work, and for a life of self-help and self-support, certainly the study of a dead language can not be the best preparation for either. To get out a few lines of Latin verse by aid of a lexicon, or to be able to parse an Athenian apothegm in the original, with a Greek grammar in hand, is a very inadequate return for the years of toil that must be employed in the acquisition. The more the

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collegian studies, the less he knows of real things. He can turn his hand to nothing unless it be to teach others in the same blind way, or to crowd his way into professions already full of those unfitted for them, often from this very cause. To be fed as a clerk, or make a living by his wits, is not the end for which one should undergo so much drilling. To compel girls to go through this labyrinth of language, with a modicum of logic and rhetoric, is progress backward, and the reverse of a true reform. Besides, one can study the Greeks without studying Greek. We admit that Greek civilization is imperishable, because it was original and natural. We know that it continues to influence modern society because it seized upon the spirit of humanity once for all. We witness its intimate incorporation in our refinement and habits. Our sculptors study its marble legacies; our scholars honor its philosophy; and many of the precepts of our daily life have come down to us from its wisdom. The political systems which ruled its little divisions, the intellectual characteristics of the people, their social and religious institutions, their history and achievements in arts and letters, have been elaborated again and again by historians, philosophers, and translators in all languages. From these we can learn all that is essential to know. The argument that the classics should be pursued for their power and influence as an intellectual discipline, without regard to any other criterion of their usefulness, has only the prejudices of centuries to support it. The question of education to-day is, not only to discipline the mind, but to prepare men for the active spheres of industrial and scientific pursuits, to augment their efficacy in producing wealth, to exert an influence in checking evil, and pro

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