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Seven shepherds, i 516.
Seven spirits, iii. 337.
Seven Weeks, iii. 137.

Seventy Weeks, the, the general sum of, iii.
92-101; events comprehended in, 101
197; commencement of, 202-220; termi-
nation of, 220-222; harmony between the
prophecy and its fulfilment in relation to
the beginning and termination of, 222-
239; non-Messianic interpretation of, re-
viewed, 249-260; modern non-Messianic
expositors of, 260-264
Shaking the heavens, iii. 269, &c. ; the moral
effects of, 275, &c.; relation of the idea of
to history, 276, &c. ; how realised previous
to the first coming of Christ, 277, &c.;
quotation of the prophecy of, in the epistle
to the Hebrews, 278.
Shallum, import of the name, ii. 398-400.
She that Beareth i. 509-512.

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Spoil. Messiah shall divide the, ii. 307.
Sprinkling many nations, ii. 267.
Sprout of the Lord, ii. 13-19; 276; iii. 327,

Staff of Beauty, iv. 25, &c., 36, &c.
Standing before and at the right hand, mean-
ing of the phrases, iii. 318-319.
Star, the, to arise out of Jacob, i. 90-95.
State-Horse, Judah, the, of Jehovah, iii. 438-

Sticks, the two, in Ezekiel's hand, iii. 55.
Stone, a foundation, ii. 154-155; with seven
eyes upon it, iii. 334; a burdensome, iv.

Storms and Earthquakes, their symbolic im-
port, iii. 273.

Stranger, the, how regarded by the law of
Moses, iv. 199.

Substitution of the Messiah for his people, ii.

Summit of Abominations, iii. 168, &c.
Sun, the, turned into darkness, i. 336-337.
Sun and Heat, their symbolic import, ii. 25.
Sun of Righteousness, iv. 212-214.
Sword, the invoked to smite the Shepherd,
iv. 107-114.

Sword, the mouth a sharp, iii. 233.
Swords beaten into ploughshares, i. 443, &c.
Symbolism, animal, in Scripture, ii. 120.
Syrio Ephramitic War, the, ii. 26-32.

Tabernacle of David, i. 384, &c.
Tabernacles, the Feast of, kept by all nations
at Jerusalem, iv. 145.

Teaching, the, promised under the New
Covenant, ii. 440; human and divine, 441,
Temple, the Jewish, the seat of the kingdom
of God, iii. 287, &c.; the first and second,
291; glory of the second, 286, 293, &c.;
purification of by Jesus, iv. 245-250.
Temple, the new, Ezekiel's vision of, iii. 58,
&c.; not to be taken literally, 58-61; its
true symbolic import, 61-64; to be built,
by Messiah, 356, &c.
Temple, vision of the abominations com-
mitted in, iii. 6, &c.
Temple-Mountain, the, exalted, iv. 136.
Temple Waters, Ezekiel's vision of the, iii.


Ten Tribes, the, their return, iii. 444-445.
Tents of Shem, i. 33-34.
Teraphim, What? i. 278, &c.; iii. 437.
Themistocles, the period of his flight, iii. 224.
Theophany, description of a sublime, i. 420.
Thirty Pieces of Silver, the goodly price, iv.

Thousands of Judah, the, i. 479, &c.
Three Shepherds, the, iv. 28; their cutting
off, 31, &c.

Throne, the Priest upon his, iii. 357.
Tongue of a disciple, the, ii. 250.
Tophet, ii. 455.
Tower of David, i. 453.

Tower of the Flock, i. 449, &c.; false views
of refuted, 450-452; the correct view es-
tablished, 452 454; reason of the appella-
tion, 454-456.

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Watchmen of Israel, ii. 262.
Water, the symbol of salvation, ii. 342.
Water of purification, iii. 47-48.
Waters, living, proceeding from the Temple,
iii. 65-76; flowing from Jerusalem, iv.
132 &c,

Way of Lord, preparing the, iv. 174, &c.
Wearying God, iv. 177.
Weeks, the seventy, general view of, iii. 92-
97; determined, 97-101; divided into
seven, sixty-two, and one, 137-165; the
last of, 240, &c.; non-Messianic exposi-
tions of reviewed, 249, &c.; modern non-
Messianic expositors, 260, &c.
White, its symbolic import, iii. 310.
Whoredom, its symbolic import, ii. 148.
Whoredom and adultery, i. 266–267.
Wife of Whoredoms, Hosea's, i. 177-191.
Wilderness, alluring into the, i. 247-255,
Wind, its symbolic import, iii. 55, &c.

Winds, the four, iii. 346.

Wine and Milk, the symbolic import of, i

Wisdom, and foolishness, ii. 115.
Witness, the Messiah a, ii. 347.
Woman, a, compassing a man, ii. 426, &c.
Woman, a, sitting in an Ephah, iii. 342, &c.
Wonderful, the, ii. 86, &c.
Wonders, i. 332.

Year, the acceptable, of the Lord, ii. 252, the
Jubilee, ibid; the great, of the Universe,
iv. 273.

Zeal of the Lord, meaning of the phrase, ii

Zebulun, and Napthali, the land of, blessed
by Messiah's presence, ii. 71, &c., 76-80.
Zechariah, the prophet, his priestly descent,
iii. 296; his youth, 297; historical circum-
stances under which he commenced his
labours, 297, &c.; the classes of persons
among whom he laboured, 298; picture of
the future derived from the combination of
scattered notices in his prophecies, 319,
&c., arrangement of his prophecies, 301;
alleged obscurity of his prophecies, 302.
Zedekiah, ii. 367, &c.
Zemach, the, iii. 327, 333.
Zend, the, quoted, as to the future happiness
of men, iv. 278.

Zephaniah, the prophet, ii. 355.
Zerubbabel, made a signet-ring by Jehovah,
iii. 271.

Zervane Akerene, iv. 320; the doctrine of,
borrowed by the Persians from the Jews,

Zion, ber establishment, i. 438; mourning
at being carried into captivity, 461; in
travail, 462; profaned by her enemies,
466; victorious, 470, &c; powerless, 472;
founded, ii. 154; called on to rejoice at
the coming of her king, iii. 395.
Zion, Mount, all nations flowing into, i.


Zoroaster's teaching respecting the coming
deliverer, iv. 279, 281.








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1. Two peculiarities distinguish the style of the N. T. from Greek prose, or, in fact, from the diction of early Greek authors in general, in regard to the use of pronouns.

a. The N. T. writers, for the sake of force or emphasis, employ personal and demonstrative pronouns more frequently than the early Greek authors (§ 22.).

b. Like the later native Greeks themselves, they dispensed with many forms—ὅστις, ὁπόσος, ὁποῖος, πηλίκος, in indirect discourse, for instance which contributed rather to mere elegancy of language than to clearness and strength of expression, and which, in the composition of Orientals, were not felt to be necessary.

Of such Greek idioms as serve to condense discourse (attraction, for instance), the N. T. writers made even very frequent use (§ 24.).

It has been erroneously asserted that aurós in the N. T. is merely equivalent to unemphatic he.

It should, further, be observed that the Hebraistic use of où - Tas for ovdeís occurs almost exclusively in sentential quotations, or set forms of expression.

2. Pronouns, whether personal, demonstrative, or relative, not unfrequently take a different gender from the nouns to which they refer.

This is called constructio ad sensum, the meaning, and not the grammatical gender of the word, being mainly considered. It is used particularly when some animate object is denoted by a Neuter or an abstract Feminine noun. The pronoun is then made to agree grammatically with the object in question, as: Mt. xxviii. 19. μαθητεύσατε πάντα τὰ ἔθνη, βαπτίζοντες αὐτούς (comp. Ex. xxiii. 27. Dt. iv. 27. xviii. 14. etc.), Rom. ii. 14. Acts xv. 17. xxvi. 17. Gal. iv. 19. τεκνία μου, οὓς πάλιν ὠδίνω, 2 Jo. 1. (similar in Eurip. Suppl. 12. iπrà yevvaíwv réxvwv, oüç, Aristoph. Plut.


xxiii. 3. ἀνέστη ̓Αβραὰμ ἀπὸ τοῦ νεκροῦ αὐτοῦ - - 4. θάψω τὸν vezρóv μov (v. 15.), though Sarah is meant; nor in the story of Susann. 61. ἐποίησαν αὐτοῖς ὃν τρόπον ἐπονηρεύσαντο τῷ πλησίον, though the reference is to Susanna. Similar in Soph. Antig. 830. φθιμένῳ (vulg. φθιμένα) τοῖς ἰσοθεοῖς ἔγκληρα λαχεῖν μέγα. In Greek a corpse is always o vexpóg, and never in the Feminine. See, further, Hm. Soph. Antig. p. 114. 176.

Note 1. In Rom. xi. 4. containing a quotation from the Old Test. (1 Kings xix. 18.) we find Baάλ (Hos. ii. 8. Zeph. i. 4.) probably with no secondary contemptuous meaning, as the Feminine names of false gods are said to be used in Arabic and in the Talmud (?). See Gesen. in Rosenm. Repertor. and Tholuck in loc., and, on the other hand, Fr. Rom. II. 442. But Paul, quoting from memory, might easily write Baά, as he had occasionally found it in the Sept. (yet the Codd. vary), though in this very passage the Sept. has Baaλ. Rückert in loc. is, as often elsewhere, mistaken. Besides, it was matter of indifference whether Baal was regarded as a male or a female false deity. Theile tries to explain from the usage of the Sept. porxanides in the general address in Jas. iv. 4.; but see, on the other hand, de Wette. The omission of the words porxo xai has no decisive authority in its favour; and it would be carrying reverence for the (other) principal Codd. too far, never to admit an error of a transcriber in the concurrence of similar words.

Note 2. A noun of any gender, taken merely as a word, is used, as all know, with the Neut. Article, as : Gal. iv. 25. Tò "Ayap, the (word) Agar. On the other hand, the Fem. may appear to be used for the Neut. in ovaí Rev. ix. 12. xi. 14. Probably, however, the writer had in his mind some such word as θλῖψις οι ταλαιπωρία. Note 3. As to the adverbial use of a Fem. adjective, as: día, zar' idíav etc., see § 54.



1. Foreigners found no difficulty in comprehending, generally, the respective import of the Greek cases (Hm. de emend. rat. I. 137 sqq. Bhdy p. 74 ff.). Even the Jews were able, without inflexions,

1 A monographia was published at Erlang. 1831. 8. by J. A. Hartung on the Cases, their formation and import, in the Greek and Latin languages. (See also Rumpel on the Greek Cases. Halle 1845. 8.)

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