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Seven shepherds, i 516.
Seventy Weeks, the, the general sum of, iii.
Spoil. Messiah shall divide the, ii. 307.
Staff of Beauty, iv. 25, &c., 36, &c.
Sticks, the two, in Ezekiel's hand, iii. 55.
Storms and Earthquakes, their symbolic im-
Stranger, the, how regarded by the law of
Substitution of the Messiah for his people, ii.
Summit of Abominations, iii. 168, &c.
Sword, the mouth a sharp, iii. 233.
Tabernacle of David, i. 384, &c.
Teaching, the, promised under the New
Ten Tribes, the, their return, iii. 444-445.
Thousands of Judah, the, i. 479, &c.
Throne, the Priest upon his, iii. 357.
Tower of the Flock, i. 449, &c.; false views
Watchmen of Israel, ii. 262.
Way of Lord, preparing the, iv. 174, &c.
Winds, the four, iii. 346.
Wine and Milk, the symbolic import of, i
Wisdom, and foolishness, ii. 115.
Year, the acceptable, of the Lord, ii. 252, the
Zeal of the Lord, meaning of the phrase, ii
Zebulun, and Napthali, the land of, blessed
Zephaniah, the prophet, ii. 355.
Zervane Akerene, iv. 320; the doctrine of,
Zion, ber establishment, i. 438; mourning
Zoroaster's teaching respecting the coming
WINER'S GRAMMAR OF THE NEW TESTAMENT. T. & T. CLARK, 38, GEORGE STREET, EDINBURGH.
OF PRONOUNS IN GENERAL.
OF PRONOUNS IN GENERAL.
1. Two peculiarities distinguish the style of the N. T. from Greek prose, or, in fact, from the diction of early Greek authors in general, in regard to the use of pronouns.
a. The N. T. writers, for the sake of force or emphasis, employ personal and demonstrative pronouns more frequently than the early Greek authors (§ 22.).
b. Like the later native Greeks themselves, they dispensed with many forms—ὅστις, ὁπόσος, ὁποῖος, πηλίκος, in indirect discourse, for instance which contributed rather to mere elegancy of language than to clearness and strength of expression, and which, in the composition of Orientals, were not felt to be necessary.
Of such Greek idioms as serve to condense discourse (attraction, for instance), the N. T. writers made even very frequent use (§ 24.).
It has been erroneously asserted that aurós in the N. T. is merely equivalent to unemphatic he.
It should, further, be observed that the Hebraistic use of où - Tas for ovdeís occurs almost exclusively in sentential quotations, or set forms of expression.
2. Pronouns, whether personal, demonstrative, or relative, not unfrequently take a different gender from the nouns to which they refer.
This is called constructio ad sensum, the meaning, and not the grammatical gender of the word, being mainly considered. It is used particularly when some animate object is denoted by a Neuter or an abstract Feminine noun. The pronoun is then made to agree grammatically with the object in question, as: Mt. xxviii. 19. μαθητεύσατε πάντα τὰ ἔθνη, βαπτίζοντες αὐτούς (comp. Ex. xxiii. 27. Dt. iv. 27. xviii. 14. etc.), Rom. ii. 14. Acts xv. 17. xxvi. 17. Gal. iv. 19. τεκνία μου, οὓς πάλιν ὠδίνω, 2 Jo. 1. (similar in Eurip. Suppl. 12. iπrà yevvaíwv réxvwv, oüç, Aristoph. Plut.
xxiii. 3. ἀνέστη ̓Αβραὰμ ἀπὸ τοῦ νεκροῦ αὐτοῦ - - 4. θάψω τὸν vezρóv μov (v. 15.), though Sarah is meant; nor in the story of Susann. 61. ἐποίησαν αὐτοῖς ὃν τρόπον ἐπονηρεύσαντο τῷ πλησίον, though the reference is to Susanna. Similar in Soph. Antig. 830. φθιμένῳ (vulg. φθιμένα) τοῖς ἰσοθεοῖς ἔγκληρα λαχεῖν μέγα. In Greek a corpse is always o vexpóg, and never in the Feminine. See, further, Hm. Soph. Antig. p. 114. 176.
Note 1. In Rom. xi. 4. containing a quotation from the Old Test. (1 Kings xix. 18.) we find Baάλ (Hos. ii. 8. Zeph. i. 4.) probably with no secondary contemptuous meaning, as the Feminine names of false gods are said to be used in Arabic and in the Talmud (?). See Gesen. in Rosenm. Repertor. and Tholuck in loc., and, on the other hand, Fr. Rom. II. 442. But Paul, quoting from memory, might easily write Baά, as he had occasionally found it in the Sept. (yet the Codd. vary), though in this very passage the Sept. has Baaλ. Rückert in loc. is, as often elsewhere, mistaken. Besides, it was matter of indifference whether Baal was regarded as a male or a female false deity. Theile tries to explain from the usage of the Sept. porxanides in the general address in Jas. iv. 4.; but see, on the other hand, de Wette. The omission of the words porxo xai has no decisive authority in its favour; and it would be carrying reverence for the (other) principal Codd. too far, never to admit an error of a transcriber in the concurrence of similar words.
Note 2. A noun of any gender, taken merely as a word, is used, as all know, with the Neut. Article, as : Gal. iv. 25. Tò "Ayap, the (word) Agar. On the other hand, the Fem. may appear to be used for the Neut. in ovaí Rev. ix. 12. xi. 14. Probably, however, the writer had in his mind some such word as θλῖψις οι ταλαιπωρία. Note 3. As to the adverbial use of a Fem. adjective, as: día, zar' idíav etc., see § 54.
OF THE CASES IN GENERAL.
1. Foreigners found no difficulty in comprehending, generally, the respective import of the Greek cases (Hm. de emend. rat. I. 137 sqq. Bhdy p. 74 ff.). Even the Jews were able, without inflexions,
1 A monographia was published at Erlang. 1831. 8. by J. A. Hartung on the Cases, their formation and import, in the Greek and Latin languages. (See also Rumpel on the Greek Cases. Halle 1845. 8.)