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thing is gained when interesting books of travel and adventure are permitted to enliven the lesson, but a still richer benefit is conferred when the teacher, after discussing the physical structure and topography of a country, directs his pupils to some striking events or epochs which have marked the history of that country, or to the achievements of its patriots and warriors, its social and industrial progress and the causes therefor. As a matter of fact, the relief and topography of a country are of no value except as they reveal reasons for what nations have been able to accomplish. There is logic in events. There is still closer logic in the soil and what it produces, or in a given section of country and what the human race has wrought within its borders. -S. T. Dutton, New Haven.
-A problem that at a glance seems easy enough to tempt many a school-boy to spend a portion of his Christmas vacation in an endeavour to solve it appeared recently in a Maine journal, and it is as follows:-"Take the number fifteen. Multiply it by itself and you have 225. Now multiply 225 by itself. Then multiply that product by itself, and so on until fifteen products have been multiplied by themselves in turn." The question aroused considerable interest among lawyers in Portland, and their best mathematician, after struggling with the problem long enough to see how much labour was entailed in the solution, made the following discouraging report upon it :-"The final problem called for contains 38,539 figures (the first of which are 1,412). Allowing three figures to an inch, the answer would be over 1,070 feet long. To perform the operation would require 500,000,000 figures. If they can be made at the rate of one hundred a minute, a person working ten hours a day for 300 days in each year would be twenty-eight years about it. If, in multiplying, he should make a row of ciphers, as he does in other figures, the number of figures used would then be 523,939,228. That would be the precise number of figures used if the product of the left hand figure in each multiplicand by each figure of the multiplier was always a single figure; but, as it is most frequently, and yet not always, two figures, the method employed to obtain the foregoing result cannot be accurately applied. Assuming that the cipher is used on an average once in ten times, 475,000,000 figures is a close approximation to the actual number."
This is surely strong language for even an advocate to use against the present jumble of Latin pronunciation produced by those who would reform it. "Latin is a dead language, as dead as Cæsar, as the Tarquins, as Remus, whom Romulus killed. Who cares how the old Romans pronounced it? What matters it whether the cock that once crowed thrice much to the chagrin of a certain Peter, crowed in G minor or a Shanghai basso profundo! There is no one to tell in what key he crowed."
It goes without saying that a fair degree of proficiency in general knowledge is indispensable for full efficiency. No one ought to be
admitted to membership in a training-school who does not control a knowledge of number, form, the phenomena of matter and force, animals and plants, the earth and the sky, the structure and force of language, to the extent at least to which good elementary and high schools deal with these things. No training-school can afford the time and energy to teach these things: they should be brought to the school by the candidates for admission.
Every teacher worthy of the name should be a constant reader of good educational literature. The horizon of the teacher's experience can be extended only by his own personal elevation; his isolated habitation can be effectually illuminated only by the admission of light from without. Yet thousands of teachers prefer to exclude the sunlight, that they may toil on by the light of their own tallow candles. -Educational Exchange.
-What say the opponents to spelling reform after reading something of this kind? Pay great attention? What does this spellGhoughphtheightteeau? Well, according to the following rule, it spells-it spells-do you give it up? It spells potato, viz.-gh stands for p, as in the last letters in hiccough; ough for o, as in dough; phth for t, as in phthisis; eigh stands for a, as in neighbor; tte stands for t, as in gazette; and eau stands for o, as in beau. Thus you have p-o-t-a-t-o.
GEOGRAPHY (GRADE I. MODEL SCHOOL.)
[Only one question is to be answered from each Section of all the papers for Grades I. and II. Model School, except in those where other instructions are given. The answers must be written on paper of the regulation size (quarter-sheet foolscap, and fastened at the upper left-hand corner.) It will be more convenient for the examiners if every answer begins on a new sheet. A margin should be left on each page. Write only on one side of the paper. Write neatly.]
1. Write out the names of the provinces of Canada and the states of the adjoining Republic which border on the Atlantic Ocean. What are their capitals?
2. Name in a column ten of the largest rivers in North America, and in a parallel column the name of any one of the towns situated on each of these rivers respectively.
3. Write a paragraph, a page or more in length, on Newfoundland or on Alaska.
4. Draw a map of any one of the provinces of the Dominion of Canada, and print in it, in your neatest way, at least ten names of places.
5. Describe the course of the largest river in North America, and of the largest river in Canada. Draw a map of the course of either river.
6. Name the principal mountain ranges in North America. What are the names of five of the mountain peaks.
7. Write the names of any ten of the following places in a column, and opposite each say where it is situated and give some one fact you know about it :-Bermuda, New Westminster, New Orleans, Long Island, Vancouver, Erie, Utah, California, Cape Sable, Kingston, Albany, Memphramagog, Pontiac, Ottawa, St. Hyacinthe, St. Francis, San Francisco.
8. What is meant by exports and imports? State in what part of the Dominion of Canada there is to be found in largest abundance coal, iron, gold, lumber. Where is the great wheat-growing district in Canada?
9. Give an account of a voyage from Montreal to New York, naming the coast-waters, capes, peninsulas, and islands to be seen on the way.
ARITHMETIC (GRADE I. MODEL SCHOOL.)
[Two questions are to be answered from each of the first two sections.]
[The question is to be written out by the pupil first, and the problem worked out underneath. The ciphering should be done neatly, and each sum separated from the other by a double line.]
1. Name the various kinds of vulgar fractions. complex fraction and reduce it to a simple fraction.
Write out a
2. Reduce 16 tons, 3 ewts., 2 qrs., 16 lbs., 3 ozs., 4 drs. to drams. Reduce 24 lbs., 6 ozs., 4 dwts., 6 grains to grains.
3. Find the L.C.M. of 44, 18, 30, 77, 56, 27, and the G.C.M. of 556 and 672.
4. Write in figures seven millions, five hundred thousand and sixteen. Write out in words 160,300,456,216. Multiply 67,483 by 365.
5. A farmer sells seven loads of wheat, the first containing 1,763 lbs., the second 1,827 lbs., the third 1,329 lbs., the fourth 1,901 lbs., the fifth 1,666 lbs., the sixth 1,879 lbs., and the seventh 1,185 lbs. What was the weight of the seven loads when heaped together, and how many bushels did they contain, a bushel weighing 60 lbs. on an average? Divide 384,967,325 by 397.
6. Divide 4 of 3 by 21 of 61. How much is of 186 acres 3 rods. Reduce of a ton to the fraction of a lb.
7. Write down the answers of the following, and attach this part
of the printed paper to your written answers to the four questions you have selected from Sections I. and II. :
(a) Multiply 64 by 78. Ans..
(b) Divide $145.60 among 13 boys. What does each receive? Ans....
(c) Multiply 1,365 by 25. Ans.
(d) Simplify ++. Ans.
(e) Multiply 6 by 16. Ans.
(f) Reduce 340 cwts., 6 lbs. to lbs. Ans..
(h) Multiply the square of 12 by 9. Ans.
ENGLISH GRAMMAR (GRADE I. MODEL SCHOOL.)
1. Name the various kinds of nouns and define them. What are nouns inflected to show? Give six nouns that have a separate form for the feminine.
2. How many cases are there? Define them. What is the case of the nouns and pronouns respectively in the following sentence: "This book John tried to give me, but it I would not have, for it was not his own to give."
3. Name the various kinds of adjectives. Define them and give examples. Compare the adjectives: old, new, little, better, last.
4. Analyse these three sentences:
(a) The pilgrim passes over the bridge.
(b) The poor pilgrim wearied with his long walk passes with faltering step over the bridge near our house.
(c) The poor pilgrim, sad in look and weary in limb, passes across our bridge in search of food and lodging in the neighbouring village.
5. Parse every word in the sentence:
"At the horizon, where the waters and the clouds appear to meet, all is calm and tranquil.”
6. Write out a sentence in which there are at least five of the parts of speech represented. Indicate them by writing above each word
what it is.
7. What is meant by syntax? Write out any rule of syntax. Are these expressions correct? If not, correct them:-How many is there in our school? He don't know. You aint acquainted with him. He hadn't ought to be allowed near the school. I seen him last night, though he has went away as suddenly as he came. Between you and I, he's not much.
8. Decline the personal pronouns, and then write short sentences containing respectively the forms of the third personal pronoun.
8. What is the difference between the direct object and the indirect object? Define the terms :—subject, predicate, enlargement extension, and simple sentence. Construct a simple sentence of fifteen words and analyse it.
ENGLISH (GRADE I. MODEL SCHOOL.)
1. Where do any three of the following passages occur? Complete the stanzas. Name the authors.
(a) Life is but an empty dream
(b) There was a sound of revelry by night
(c) Would you see the magical army?
(d) Hail to the days when the Briton came o'er
(e) Mother, wherefore dost thou look so earnest ?
[Answer two questions from this Section.]
2. Write out a description of "Niagara Falls" or of the "Battle of the Nile." (Be careful in the construction of your sentences.)
3. Give the meaning of the following words taken from the prescribed portion of the reader :-precipitated, propitiation, development, aphorism, melancholy. Write out five sentences, each containing one of these words respectively, in such a way as to show that you understand the meaning of each of them.
4. Same as number 3, with the words :-contemplation, tributary, anxiety, extremity, expectation.
5. Reproduce the extract which has been read twice in your hearing by the deputy-examiner. (The paragraph is to be taken from page 267 Gage's Fourth Reader, "The Rebellion of 1837."
DRAWING FROM 11 TO 12.
1. While the pupils are engaged with their English paper, the