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tile sensation, whilst the act of deglutition, when the food had been carried within reach of the pharyngeal muscles, was excited without the necessary concurrence of sensation. But she made no spontaneous effort to feed herself with the spoon, showing that she had not even that simple idea of helping herself which infants so early acquire; though after her mother had conveyed the spoon a few times to her mouth, so as to renew the association between the muscular action and the sensorial stimulus, the patient continued the operation. It appears, however, to have been necessary to repeat this lesson on every occasion, showing the complete absence of memory for any idea, even one so simple and so immediately connected with the supply of the bodily wants. The difference between an instinct and a desire or propensity is here most strikingly manifested. This patient had an instinctive tendency to ingest food, as is shown by her performance of the actions already alluded to; but these actions required the stimulus of the present sensation, and do not seem to have been connected with any notion of the character of the object as food; at any rate, there was no manifestation of the existence of any such notion or idea, for she displayed no desire for food or drink in the absence of the objects, even when she must have been conscious of the uneasy sensations of hunger and thirst. The very limited nature of her faculties and the automatic life she was leading appear further evident from the following particulars.
One of her first acts on recovering from the fit had been to busy herself in picking the bed-clothes; and, as soon as she was able to sit up and be dressed, she continued the habit by incessantly picking some portion of her dress. She seemed to want an occupation for her fingers, and accordingly part of an old straw bonnet was given to her, which she pulled into pieces of great minuteness. She was afterwards bountifully supplied with roses; she picked off the leaves, and then tore them into the smallest particles imaginable. A few days subsequently she began forming on the table, out of these minute particles, rude figures of roses and other common garden flowers; she had never received any instructions in drawing. Roses not being so plentiful in London, waste paper and a pair of scissors were put into her hands, and for some days she found an occupation in cutting the paper into shreds. After a time these cuttings assumed rude figures and shapes, and more particularly the shapes used in patchwork; at length she was supplied with proper materials for patchwork, and, after some initiatory instruction, she took to her needle and to this em
ployment in good earnest. She now laboured incessantly at patchwork from morning till night, and on Sundays and weekdays, for she knew no difference of days, nor could she be made to comprehend the difference. She had no remembrance from day to day of what she had been doing on the previous day, and so every morning commenced de novo. Whatever she began, that she continued to work at while daylight lasted, manifesting no uneasiness for anything to eat or drink, taking not the slightest heed of anything which was going on around her, but intent only on her patchwork. She gradually began, like a child, to register ideas and acquire experience. This was first shown in connection with her manual occupation. From patchwork, after having exhausted all the materials within her reach, she was led to the higher art of worsted-work, by which her attention was soon engrossed as constantly as it had before been by her humbler employment. She was delighted with the colours and the flowers upon the patterns that were brought to her, and seemed to derive special enjoyment from the harmony of colours; nor did she conceal her want of respect towards any specimen of work that was placed before her, but immediately threw it aside if the arrangement displeased her. She still had no recollection from day to day of what she had done, and every morning began something new, unless her unfinished work was placed before her; and, after imitating the patterns of others, she began devising some of her own.
The first ideas, derived from her former experience, that seemed to be awakened within her, were connected with two subjects which had naturally made a strong impression upon her; namely, her fall into the river and a love affair. It will be obvious that her pleasure in the symmetrical arrangement of patterns, the harmony of colours, etc., was at first simply sensorial; but she gradually took an interest in looking at pictures or prints, more especially of flowers, trees, and animals. When, however, she was shown a landscape in which there was a river, or a view of a troubled sea, she became intensely excited and violently agitated, and one of her fits of spasmodic rigidity and insensibility immediately followed. If the picture were removed before the paroxysm had subsided, she manifested no recollection of what had taken place; but so great was her feeling of dread or fright associated with water, that the mere sight of it in motion, its mere running from one vessel to another, made her shudder and tremble; and in the act of washing her hands, they were merely placed in water. From this it may be inferred that simple ideas were now being formed; for whilst
the actual sight or contact of moving water excited them by the direct Sensorial channel, the sight of a picture containing a river or water in movement could only do so by giving rise to the notion of water.
From an early stage of her illness, she had derived obvious pleasure from the proximity of a young man to whom she had been attached; he was evidently an object of interest when nothing else would rouse her, and nothing seemed to give her so much pleasure as his presence. He came regularly every evening to see her, and she as regularly looked for his coming. At a time when she did not remember from one hour to another what she was doing, she would look anxionsly for the opening of the door about the time he was accustomed to pay her a visit; and if he came not, she was fidgetty and fretful throughout the evening. When, by her removal into the country, she lost sight of him for some time, she became unhappy and irritable, manifested no pleasure in anything, and suffered very frequently from fits of spasmodic rigidity and insensibility. When, on the other hand, he remained constantly near her, she improved in bodily health, early associations were gradually awakened, and her Intellectual powers and memory of words progressively returned. We here see very clearly the composite nature of the Emotion of Affection. At first, there was simple pleasure in the presence of her lover, excited by the gratification which the impress of former associations had connected with the sensation. Afterwards, however, it was evident that the pleasure became connected with the idea; she thought of him when absent, expected his return (even showing a power of measuring time, when she had no memory for anything else), and manifested discomfort if he did not make his appearance. Here we see the true Emotion, namely, the association of pleasure with the idea, and the manner in which the desire would spring out of it. The desire, in her then condition, would be inoperative in causing voluntary movement for its gratification, simply because there was no Intellect for it to act upon.
Her Mental powers, however, were gradually returning. She took greater heed of the objects by which she was surrounded; and on one occasion, seeing her mother in a state of excessive agitation and grief, she became excited herself, and in the emotional excitement of the moment suddenly ejaculated, with some hesitation, "What's the matter?" From this time she began to articulate a few words, but she neither called persons nor things by their right names. The pronoun this" was her favourite
word, and it was applied alike to every individual object, ani
mate or inanimate. The first objects which she called by their right names were wild flowers, for which she had shown quite a passion when a child; and it is remarkable that her interest in these and her recollection of their names should have manifested itself at a time when she exhibited not the least recollection of the "old familiar friends and places" of her childhood. As her Intellect gradually expanded, and her ideas became more numerous and definite, they manifested themselves chiefly in the form of emotions; that is, the chief indications of them were through the signs of Emotional excitement. These last were frequently exhibited in the attacks of insensibility and spasmodic rigidity, which came on at the slightest alarm. is worth remarking that similar attacks, throughout this period, were apt to recur three or four times a day, when her eyes had been long directed intently upon her work; which affords another proof how closely the Emotional cause of them must have been akin to the influence of Sensory impressions, the effects of the two being precisely the same.
The mode of recovery of this patient was quite as remarkable as anything in her history. Her health and bodily strength. seemed completely re-established, her vocabulary was being extended, and her mental capacity was improving, when she became aware that her lover was paying attention to another woman. This idea immediately and very naturally excited the Emotion of jealousy; which, if we analyze it, will appear to be nothing else than a pained feeling connected with the idea of the faithlessness of the object beloved. On one occasion the feeling was so strongly excited that she fell down in a fit of insensibility, which resembled her first attack in duration and severity. This, however, proved sanatory. When the insensibility passed off, she was no longer spell-bound. The veil of oblivion was withdrawn, and, as if awakening from a sleep of twelve months' duration, she found herself surrounded by her grandfather, grandmother, and their familiar friends and acquaintances, in the old house at Shoreham. She awoke in the possession of her natural faculties and former knowledge, but without the slightest remembrance of anything which had taken place in the year's interval, from the invasion of the first fit up to the present time. She spoke, but she heard not; she was still deaf, but being able to read and write as formerly, she was no longer cut off from communication with others. From this time she rapidly improved, but for some time continued deaf. She soon perfectly understood by the motion of the lips what her mother said; they conversed with facility and quickness together, but
she did not understand the language of the lips of a stranger. She was completely unaware of the change in her lover's affections, which had taken place in her state of "second consciousness," and a painful explanation was necessary. This, however, she bore very well; and she has since recovered her previous bodily and mental health.
Practical Hints and Examination Papers.
Teachers ought to discriminate more carefully than they do between method and devices. A method is a way of accomplishing a purpose, and it embraces, therefore, a distinct comprehension of the purpose in view and of the relation of the way proposed to its attainment. There are general principles of methods which ought to be understood, and there are specific principles which relate to the character and value of each of the branches of instruction, and develop the general line of procedure best adapted to secure the right result. But devices are specific. They say here is a plan which you may find interesting to your class; or, you may adopt such a device for variety; or, worst of all, they detail a series of questions to be put and answers to be secured. The devices have value. Rightly used they serve to give variety and freshness to the applications of method. They are of temporary importance, however, good when new, but to be superseded when they have become tedious. A right method is always right, and includes under it as details a shifting variety of devices. It is unfortunate that so many teachers are grasping eagerly after devices, because, finding them ready-made in educational journals and applying them mechanically, the devices often prevent them from ever coming at methods. They fail to see clearly the purposes which ought to be secured, and so to give unity, directness and efficacy to their teaching. Some, through the use of devices which they get from others or from the journals, come at length to see the purposes which they are designed to secure, and so at length arrive at methods; but more go on in a routine fashion, doing as they have learned and not seeing or trying to see the reasons and relations of their work. To them devices are but means of escape from thinking for themselves. Thus, even good devices do them no good, and produce little good fruit through their unintelligent use of them. When will it be generally recognized that teaching is an intellectual calling?-Wisconsin Journal.
One of the most contemptible things a teacher can do is to criticise the teaching force and ability of the teacher whose class has been promoted to her own room. The mean part of it is that the criticism is made on some scholar before the entire class. Apart from the question of professional courtesy due another teacher, there is the influence that this censure has on the minds of the children. To disturb the faith in human nature which children possess in so large