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It must be a poor
the most ordinary brown or grey wrapping paper. paper; that is to say, it must have an open texture and be absolutely free from all gloss. This paper is then torn into pieces about two or three inches square, put into a bucket, and boiling water poured over it. It is well to put plenty of water over it; any excess can be readily disposed of afterwards. This can then be stood aside for some time, preferably over night. The next day the water must be poured off, and fresh water, as warm as the hand can stand, poured over the paper, which by this time should be quite soft. The paper must now be thoroughly torn and kneaded with the fingers until it becomes a uniformly pasty mass. It is then ready for use.
The pupils should have been previously taught to mould the continent in sand, so that by this time they are thoroughly familiar with its relief. Each pupil can take a lump of pulp a little larger than his fist, and, following the teacher, should mould the continent on a piece of board. This amount of paper will make a continent like North America about ten inches long. The map must then be set aside, lying flat, in a warm, dry place for a day or two, when it will have firmly set. It can now be detached from the board with a long, flatbladed knife, or, if it is desired, it may remain on the board, to which it will firmly adhere.
If desired, the map may be colored to indicate the relief. If this is done it should, however, be painted with different shades of the same color, such as green or brown, darker on the lowlands, and shading gradually into the lighter in the plateaus and lower mountains, and even into white on the mountain peaks. But sudden transitions from dark to light must be avoided. It is already too difficult to make pupils understand the gradual, almost imperceptible change from lowland to plateau, and such coloring would but increase the difficulty. These maps, when completed, are light and durable, and withal very neat. S. C. Schmucker, in Educational Monthly.
Books Received and Reviewed.
[All Exchanges and Books for Review should be sent direct to Dr. J. M. Harper, Box 305, Quebec, P.Q.]
The American School Board Journal, which enters upon its second volume this year, is beautifully illustrated this month with the photographs of prominent school officials. Intelligence has always an excellent department devoted to current events, which teachers cannot but appreciate. The Standard, published in New York, also gives the news items a teacher requires for his classes on current events.
MACMILLAN'S COURSE OF GERMAN COMPOSITION.-Under this title has been issued the First Course, by G. Eugène Fasnacht, formerly of Westminster School. This book is framed on the author's idea of parallel German-English Extracts and parallel English-German Syntax. While explaining this plan, the author says, "It is only by
immersing himself headlong, as it were, in the extraneous atmosphere, that the student can nerve himself for the struggle of learning to make use of a foreign language; and for this process of immersion to yield its full benefits it is necessary that the readings in the foreign language should bear upon topics akin to the subject-matter of the composition." John Stuart Blackie has recommendod the same thing, and we have published his advice already. In the Syntax part of this book there is also a change to be found over other Readers: in a word, the ordinary process followed in the ordinary run of grammars has been reversed by Mr. Fasnecht, and we are sure his plan will meet the approval of teachers who are not unwilling to move out of the old rut of having pupils of a foreign language start from the foreigner's standpoint, and not from the English. We heartily recommend the book.
KINDERGARTEN STORIES AND MORNING TALKS, written and compiled by Miss Sara E. Wiltse, and published by the Messrs. Ginn & Co., Boston.--This book has all the suggestions an elementary teacher may want for a year in the art of story-telling. With such a little book as this for a guide, the teacher of the country school can introduce at least one of the kindergarten principles in her routine work of teaching reading, writing and arithmetic.
HEATH'S MODERN LANGUAGE SERIES has added another Reader to its list. This time it is Prosper Mérimée's Colomba, issued with introduction and notes by Dr. J. A. Fontaine, of the University of Mississippi. The publishers are the Messrs. D. C. Heath and Company, Boston, U.S. The selection is an excellent one, Mérimée ranking among the best French writers of this century, while the manner in which Dr. Fontaine has prepared the work for the press is worthy of the highest commendation.
LESSONS FOR A FIRST YEAR IN ENGLISH GRAMMAR, by Miss Jessie M. Anderson, of Washington, and published by John B. Alden, New York. This is a book prepared by an experimenting teacher. After dedicating it to her little brother, who, she says, first taught her how to teach children grammar, Miss Anderson says, "My classes of little girls have understood and loved the study by the help of these pages: this is my apology for offering them to the public." The teacher who sends for the little volume will pick up many a valuable hint from it.
THE ESSENTIAL USES OF THE MOODS IN GREEK AND LATIN, set forth in parallel arrangement by Robert P. Keep, and published by the Messrs. Ginn & Co., Boston.-This is a revised edition of a pamphlet issued in 1879. Most of classical masters have tried to do what Mr. Keep has done, but perhaps with less success. It forms an invaluable guide to the teacher of classics.
PRINCIPLES OF THE ALGEBRA OF LOGIC, with Examples by Dr. Macfarlane, of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, and published by David Douglas, Edinburgh. The leaders of education are beginning to recognize the value of mathematics in logic under the tutelage of De Morgan and Jevons, and as a treatise on the science of formal reason
ing the book before us has received careful examination at the hands of collegiate professors. The origin of the treatise was a paper read before the Royal Society of Edinburgh.
NOTES ON ENgLish Literature, by Professor Fred Parker Emery, of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and published by the Messrs. Ginn & Co.-This volume also represents the labor of an experienced teacher, the book having been originally written for the use of Mr. Emery's students. The aim of the work is to indicate to the student what is best worth his time to read and study, and yet many a student preparing for an examination will be only too glad to have it as a guide. Along with the ordinary text-book on Literature, such as Spaulding's or Collier's, the above hand-book will prove an excellent helpmate. The author's introduction contains sound advice to the student who is just entering upon the study of the works of the great English writers.
XENOPHON'S ANABASIS, BOOK III., edited for the use of schools, with Notes, Introductions, Vocabulary, Illustrations and Maps, by the Rev. G. H. Nall, M.A., of Westminster School, and late of Queen's College, Oxford. The book is one of the series of Macmillan's Elementary Classics, than which there is nothing neater in the market.
QUEBEC, ANCIENT AND MODERN, by E. T. D. Chambers, Editor of the Quebec Chronicle, and City Councillor.-This professes to be an illustrated guide-book for the city of Quebec, but it is very much more than a guide-book, giving, as it does, in every page evidence of careful research and high literary ability. Mr. Chambers is a writer of increasing fame in the Dominion, his articles in the Week having placed him in the front rank of our litterateurs, and there is every evidence in the neat little volume before us that he has on hand material out of which he may eventually issue a larger work on the ancient capital.
THE PHILOSOPHY OF AMERICAN LITERATURE, by Greenough White, M.A., and published by the Messrs. Ginn & Co.-Mr. White has written a book, which every thoughtful student of American Literature will thoroughly enjoy, though we doubt very much if he has established his thesis, namely, the independent and organic development of the literature or literatures of the New World. The book is more likely to be accepted as a strong plea in favor of examining the close relationship between the literature of any country and its history, when the study of a literature is undertaken by a careful student. The admirer of the literary works of the writers of the United States will none the less thank Mr. White for his book.
RIDER PAPERS ON EUCLID, BOOKS I. AND II., arranged by Rupert Deakin, M.A., of Baliol College, Oxford, and published by Messrs. Macmillan & Co., London, England.-We have often heard our teachers ask for a series of well-graded exercises or deductions, and this is really the best collection we have seen; we willingly recommend it to our head-masters.
THE PROTESTANT CENTRAL BOARD OF EXAMINERS.
List of Candidates who obtained diplomas in July, 1891, arranged in alphabetical order.
(NOTE.-Model School Candidates marked with a star have passed in Latin. Elementary Candidates marked with a star have passed in French, Algebra and Geometry.)
SECOND CLASS ACADEMY DIPLOMAS.
Elliot, Adam John.
Solandt, Donald McKillop.
FIRST CLASS MODEL SCHOOL DIPLOMAS.
(Granted without examination to Candidates holding Second Class Model School Diplomas on the ground of success in teaching.)
Kerr, Mary M.
SECOND CLASS MODEL SCHOOL DIPLOMAS. (47.)
Lewis, Marion Eunice.
*Moore, Mary Frances French.
*McNaughton, Barbara Gardner.
McKechnie, Grace Louise. *McLeod, Maggie Ann.
McCaskill, Lillie Ann.
*McGregor, Mary V.
Nolan, Susie Ellen.
*Pearce, Jennie M.
*Planche, Frederic Arthur.
Stewart, Elizabeth Reid.
*Sulley, Nellie Genevieve.
*Symmes, T. J.
*Wood, Elizabeth Outhwaite.
FIRST CLASS ELEMENTARY DIPLOMAS.
(Granted without examination to Teachers holding Second Class Diplomas on the ground of success in teaching.)
*Bennet, Mary Charlotte. Bissell, Hattie M.
Black, Mary Isabella.
Bullock, Annie M.
*Burnett, Myrtie May.
Carter, Florence Amelia.
Ferris, Mary J.
Wilson, Sarah J.
ELEMENTARY DIPLOMAS. (130.)
Fuller, Maud Elizabeth.
Harbour, Sybil C. B.
Hilsden, Mary McD.
*Hutchins, Hannah Jennie.
Johnston, Henrietta Mary.
Johnston, Annie Hannah.
Lawrence, Myrtie. *Leefkin, Elizabeth. Lyster, Lily A. *Mahaffey, Alice J.
*Melrose, Elizabeth Cuthbertson
*Millar, Carrie Bertha.
Morrison, Janet Grey.
McGill, Clara B.