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at $260. Rule paper after the form of a ledger; enter these transactions and close the account.
5. I invested in business $3,310. At the end of the month I owed on account $44.18; I had merchandise on hand valued at $2,209.35; I was owed an account of $103.13; I held bills to the amount of $500; I had cash on hand amounting to $660.70, and I withdrew from the business $100. Draw up a statement showing my "net capital" and my net gain."
Art of Teaching.—11⁄2 hours.
1. State how you would proceed to classify a district school of twenty-five children from seven to fourteen years of age.
2. Mention the chief characteristics of a good time-table for a district school of four classes, and state how you would prepare one.
3. Mention five difficulties which generally present themselves in district schools and state how you propose to overcome them.
4. Write short notes upon-" School Tactics," "Conditions of Health in School," "Course of Study," "Preparation of Lessons," "School Holidays."
5. Give ten suggestions to assist a young teacher in opening and organizing a school the first day.
-An American exchange suggests the following hygienic exercise, and says Preparatory to it, request all the pupils in the school to make a list of the different ways of taking cold. The physiology classes especially should prepare these lists. Urge them to be practical about it and think of their own lives and experiences. After opening exercises are over, call on some pupil to read one point from his list. It is sure to be a good one, and you, the teacher, will be moved to make some practical comment on it. Then call on another pupil, and so on. You will find material thus for many mornings, and many life-saving practices may be taught and death-dealing mistakes avoided.
-The father of a ten-year-old boy, puzzled over the rapid manner in which his hopeful's shoes wore out, determined on the following plan to discover whether the rapid destruction of the shoes was due to the poor quality of the leather or to the natural wearing away He placed a pedometer in the boy's pocket, and on the first day the instrument registered nine and three-eighths miles. The second day was rainy, and the register fell down to seven and one-eighth miles. The third day was Saturday, and no school, and the register was fourteen and three-quarters miles. The fond father has given up berating shoe manufacturers, and is trying to learn of some device to keep the boy off his feet a few hours a day. -For a review in history the following has been suggested by a practical teacher :-Have each pupil bring to class ten questions written on separate slips of paper and signed. Mix all these well and in
a suitable box, and let the pupils in turn draw questions from the box to be read and answered. If any pupil is not able to answer the question he has drawn, he may call upon the proposer to answer for him, or be required to look it up for himself. If any pupil draws a question of his own proposing, he may call upon any member of the class he may choose to answer it. Keep a list of questions missed for future use. The same plan may be pursued in other branches of study. If slightly modified each time, the above plan may be used frequently to great advantage.
-It is well to supplement the ordinary story-telling of the primary grades by true stories and awaken an interest in history. Prominent stories in Canadian history may be selected in chronological order, and a few facts impressed. Pupils could be interested by the drawing of a monument upon the blackboard which they can see grow as the weeks go by. Colored crayon, if used, would make it more attractive. The following subjects may be selected : The Mound Builders, Northmen, Columbus, Champlain, the French Governors, the Conquest, the Quebec Act, Confederation, etc. Begin with the Mound Builders; use earth-colored crayons, and add a block with name and date for each story; use the brightest and gayest colors for important events, and mingle the red, white and blue, and decorate the monument with the national flag. These stories are frequently reviewed and some of them have been written. They are used in spare moments as subjects for sentence-building or of free expression.
-There is a hint for teachers in the following in two ways. They will readily put it in practice should they find themselves in the predicament of the traveller. If they can see the analogy between the advice of the engineer and the true method of dealing with faults in children, it will not be lost upon them during the moments when discipline is required: "A few years since, I was riding on an engine. The engineer threw open the front window, and I caught a cinder that gave me the most excruciating pain. I began to rub the eye with both hands. 'Let your eye alone and rub the other eye (this from the engineer). I know you doctors think you know it all; but if you let that eye alone, and rub the other one, the cinder will be out in two minutes," persisted the engineer. I began to rub the other eye, and soon I felt the cinder down near the inner canthus, made ready to take it out. 'Let it alone and keep at the well eye,' shouted the doctor pro tem. I did so for a minute longer, and looking in a small glass he gave me, I found the offender on my cheek. Since then I have tried it many times, and have advised many others, and I have never known it to fail in one instance (unless it was as sharp as a piece of steel, or something that cut into the ball, and required an operation to remove it). Why it is so, I do not know; and that it is so, I do know, and that one may be saved much suffering if one will let the injured eye alone and rub the well eye."
Books Received and Reviewed.
A SHORT HISTORY OF THE ENGLISH PEOPLE, by John Richard Green, and published by the Messrs. MacMillan & Co., London and New York. This is an illustrated edition of Mr. Green's popular work, issued in shilling parts. The illustrations are in keeping with the work itself, and when completed, the series will form a fine library set, which few students will care to be without. Nothing better for a school library could be desired-cheap and excellent.
COMPARATIVE VIEW OF GOVERNMENTS, by John Wenzel, of the Boston University, and published by the Messrs. D. C. Heath & Co., Boston, U.S. This is an excellent work of twenty pages or so, which will be eagerly welcomed by the teacher of constitutional history. The book was suggested to the mind of the writer while reading Professor Woodrow Wilson's work on historical and practical politics, and cannot but prove of great service to the student of such a work. It gives in parallel columns a comparative view of the executive and legislative departments of the governments of the United States, France, England and Germany.
HIGH SCHOOL HISTORY OF ENGLAND AND CANADA, by Miss Arabella B. Buckley and W. J. Robertson, B.A., LL.B., and published by the Copp, Clark Company, Toronto. This book has been prepared at the instance of the Minister of Education of Ontario, and shows great carefulness in its arrangement on the part of Mr. Robertson. History of England, Miss Buckley's work has been variously extolled by teachers, and where Mr. Robertson has touched, he seems to have improved. The History of Canada, which is concluded in the volume, is an excellent epitome of the events of our country.
TENNYSON'S ENOCH ARDEN, edited by W. T. Webb, M. A., Professor of English Literature, Presidency College, Calcutta, and published by the Messrs. Macmillan & Co., London and New York. We have often wished to see this work edited in the text-book form, and the present addition is all that could be desired for the school-room. There is a general introduction, giving the leading facts in the career of the distinguished author, an introduction to the poem, the poem itself in clear type with the lines numbered, an excellent series of notes, and an index to them. It is one of the series of literary editions of the Macmillans which we have already recommended for our school libraries.
GOETHE'S HERMANN AND DOWTHEA, edited by Dr. W. T. Hewett, of Cornell University, and published by the Messrs. D. C. Heath & Co., of Boston, U.S. This is another volume of the Modern Language Series of this enterprising firm. The editor proposes this work as an introduction to a fuller study of the works of the greatest of the Germans, and the attractive manner in which he presented the "dainty dish" before the student of German, is worthy of the highest
praise, How our teachers should take thought of these words, which are to be found in the author's justification of the plan he has pursued to interest his students: "I have sought to interpret the poem by illustration rather than by mere statement or reference, believing that, in the study of language, nothing makes a truth more real as to see its actual use in the expression of thought," not to speak of the great classic's chef-d'œuvre itself, we have no hesitation in recommending this text-book as the very best possible for the student of German, after he has worked his way through the grammar and a little ordinary German prose.
MACMILLAN'S ENGLISH CLASSICS.-We have had occasion to speak of this edition of classics for schools in the highest terms of praise. Those of our teachers who have procured the earlier volumes of the series should add the following which have just been received :Shakespeare's King Lear, with introduction and notes, by K. Deighton; Gray's Poems, edited by Dr. John Bradshaw, Inspector of Schools, Madras; Shakespeare's As You Like It, by K. Deighton; and Scott's Lay of the Last Minstrel, edited by G. H. Stuart, M.A., and E. H. Elliot, B. A., of Madras. All of these books add to the reputation of the excellent series to which they belong.
HEROIC BALLADS, collected and edited with notes, by D. H. Montgomery, and published by Messrs. Ginn & Company, Boston. This is the last addition to the Messrs. Ginn's Classics for Children, and a better collection for school purposes could hardly be made.
LESSONS IN BOTANY, a revised edition of Dr. Alphonso Wood's excellent text-book on this branch of Natural History, edited by Dr. Oliver R. Willis, and published by the Messrs. A. S. Barnes & Co., New York and Chicago. The book itself is well known, and the new edition is more than likely to add to its popularity as a text-book on the structure and growth of plants.
MECHANICS FOR BEGINNERS, by the Rev. I. B. Lock, M. A., of Gonville and Caius' College, Cambridge, and published by the Messrs. Macmillan, of London. There are few mathematical teachers who are not familiar with Mr. Lock's mathematical works, and this new work of his on Dynamics and Statics is sure to be examined with care. Such a subject can only be brought within the clear comprehension of the youthful student by a system of well-graded examples, which lead from one stage of reasoning to the other, and this is involved in the plan pursued by Mr. Lock perhaps more than by any other author we know of. The book is modern in its arrangement, the stages being easy, though not altogether elementary.
POLITICAL ECONOMY, by Professor Gide, of the University of Montpelier, France, translated by Edward P. Jacobsen, formerly of University College, London, with introduction and notes by Dr. James Bonar, and published by the Messrs. D. C. Heath & Co., Boston, U.S. As the work of an author who is acquainted with
the whole field of political economy, Professor Gide's book has long been spoken of in this country with the highest commendation, and, now that it has been translated into the best of English, readers will see how far he has been seized with the spirit of the natural method of presenting the subject. When the first edition appeared a complaint was uttered against it because the author, in treating each question, set forth the various competing systems without expressing his own opinions in a sufficiently decided manner. And yet, what better device than this is there for leading the mind to search for itself for the truth of scientific principles If the book had no other virtue than this it would be worthy of recommendation, but in every page the author has shown, as Dr. Bonar says, that political economy is neither dismal in its conclusions nor dull in its deliberations.
AMERICAN LITERATURE- -an elementary text-book in use in High Schools and Academies-by Julian Hawthorne and Leonard Lemmon, Superintendent City Schools, Sherman, Texas, and published by the Messrs. D. C. Heath & Co.-Anything which Mr. Hawthorne undertakes in the literary line is sure to be received with respect, and we can safely say that, from a literary standpoint, the book before us is the best guide the student of American literature could wish to read. The book professes to be a method and a guide, and again we meet with the enunciation of the central truth of all study: "The thought is the vital thing, and should be the goal of early study." The book is not merely biographical, but critical, and is at the same time lightened up with illustrations in verse and prose. The book is copiously supplied with engravings of the authors mentioned.
THE ANNUAL REPORT IN CONNECTION WITH THE INSPECTION OF THE SUPERIOR SCHOOLS UNDER THE SUPERVISION OF THE PROTESTANT COMMITTEE OF THE COUNCIL OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION OF THE PROVINCE OF QUEBEC FOR 1890-91.
TO HIS LORDSHIP THE BISHOP OF QUEBEC,
Chairman of the Protestant Committee:
May it please Your Lordship:
As in former years, I beg most respectfully to submit to you. and the members of the Protestant Committee my report of inspection and examination for 1890-91. As you are aware, I have already given in the special reports referring to my visits to each school. Before undertaking these visits last year I issued my notices in the usual way, accompanying each intimation,