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through life, but they will be removed from an atmosphere of idleness and crime. The discussion of the subject may perhaps bring out some queer vagaries about liberty and interference with parental authority. But it is a wholesome thing to legally interfere with the ignorance and selfishness of parents who do not know enough or do not care enough to do what is best with their own children, and at any rate society will not suffer from such interference. It would be only for a limited period-a period, however, whose neglect can scarcely be atoned for. It would be compelling the appropriation of a benefit in a case where class prejudice or sectional blindness would not be likely to offer much opposition. It seems certain, moreover, from the character of current discussion and the urgency of the need, that public opinion will not recede from the position which it is taking on this question. That position is just and tenable; and we hope that ere long the Ontario Government. will give its earnest attention to a demand which has arisen and will persist until a remedial measure is granted."
Finally, Dr. Hinsdale, of Michigan University, said in April last, "While the State should leave many to this voluntary treatment, all experience shows that the education of the mass of the children is not one of them."
In view of the successful working of compulsory education laws in so many parts of the world; in view of the absence of any such law in this province, resulting in many cases in deplorable neglect on the part of parents and guardians to take advantage of the education offered them; in view of the inalienable right of the state to protect itself from the consequences of ignorance and its attendant crime, and in view of that bond which makes every man his brother's keeper, your sub-committee feels called upon to recommend to this convention immediate and energetic action for the purpose of securing at an early date an adequate and wisely arranged compulsory education law.
Lastly, as to the feasibility of the thing in this province, your sub-committee is not too sanguine.
It is thought that opposition to the passage of such an act would be made from various quarters, but nothing is to be gained by delay. All great reforms have met with opposition at the outset, but though opposition may be anticipated your sub-committee is sanguine of a support equally strong.
The hon. the Premier of the Province, who has so enthusiastically supported every scheme for the educational advancement
of the people, and the hon. the Superintendent of Public Instruction have already been in conference upon this subject, and by way of popular example it may be stated that the Knights of Labour, a popular and influential body, have already pronounced in its favour.
The intelligent and thoughtful of all classes endorse the movement and they will eventually lead the masses.
Therefore, although the horizon is not as clear as could be desired, your sub-committee recommends that steps be taken to bring the question of compulsory education before the Legisla
ture at its next session.
Practical Hints and Examination Papers.
Physiology and Hygiene.-One hour.
1. How many bones in the human body? Of what are bones composed? Describe the formation of the skull, and give the other bones of the head and face.
2. State briefly, yet clearly, the different steps in the process of digestion.
3. Describe the human heart. How much blood is pumped at each pulsation? Through what vessels will it pass in its circulation?
4. What is alcohol? How is it obtained from fruit? What are its effects on (a) the nerves, (b) the liver, (c) the lungs?
5. What would you do in the following cases, provided no physician were at hand: fainting? dislocated arm? bleeding at the nose? poisoning? drowning? deep cut in hand?
6. What are muscles? Give four of their uses. How may they be (a) strengthened and (b) weakened? What is the name of the muscle which bends a limb; of the one which straightens it?
(Elementary candidates may choose any five of the above.)
School Law and Regulations.-One hour.
1. Give the number of members of the Protestant Committee of the Council of Public Instruction, and state how they are appointed. 2. Write briefly upon School Inspectors, School Visitors, Monthly Fees.
3. Give the different sources from which funds are derived for the support of elementary schools.
4. Give five points, determined by law, which govern the relations of School Commissioners and teachers.
5. Give five points, determined by Regulation, which govern the relations of teachers and pupils.
To the Editor of the EDUCATIONAL RECORD.
SIR,-I beg to call the attention of your readers to the following intimations in connection with the Teachers' Association ::
1. Any member of the Association who has not received a catalogue of the books in the library may do so by applying to Miss Robins, McGill Normal School.
2. The Presidents of Local Associations being ex-officio VicePresidents of the Provincial Association will kindly send their addresses to the Corresponding Secretary, so that he may know where to send notices of meetings, etc.
3. Members of the Association will kindly consider the notices in the RECORD as sufficient official notification of their various appointments. Yours sincerely, W. DIXON, Corresponding Secy., Prov. Ass. of Prot. Teachers of Quebec.
The following is the text of an offer much discussed by teachers in Canada, and which is published for their perusal :
To the School Teachers of Canada:
OTTAWA, Oct. 21, 1891.
I hereby offer to the Dominion Committee on Canadian History the sum of two thousand five hundred dollars for a period of two or three years without interest.
I give the free use of this money on condition :-1. That it shall be expended as a prize or prizes, or otherwise, to secure the produc tion of a text book of Canadian History, written from a Dominion standpoint, and suitable for use in all the schools of Canada. 2. That the text so produced be authorized for use and adopted by the schools in at least five of the seven provinces of the Dominion, and in all if possible. 3. That satisfactory security shall be given me when I pay out this money, for its return to me at the expiration of the time agreed upon. 4. That the copyright of the manuscripts winning first and second prizes shall be vested in a board of trustees, of whom I shall be one, appointed by the committee, whose duty shall be to publish the history and conduct all financial affairs appertaining to the committee.
In connection with this offer, I beg to suggest that the text-book be sold at as low a figure as is consistent with its cost, and the objects desired in the following clause, i.e., that the profits accruing from the sale of the book be expended in the several provinces in proportion to the receipts from each, of establishing a course of lectures on Canadian History in each of the Normal Schools in the Dominion, and in providing a reference library on Canadian History for each of those schools.
Should this offer be accepted, it is confidently expected that a standard history will be issued for use throughout the schools of the Dominion, at a rate not exceeding forty cents per copy.
Respectfully submitted, JEFFREY H. BURLAND.
COOKSHIRE, P.Q., Nov. 2nd, 1891.
The Editor EDUCATIONAL RECORD, Quebec.
DEAR SIR,-I have noticed, on reading the EDUCATIONAL RECORD, that communications from our rural districts. 66 are conspicuous by their absence." Permit me to break the ice, trusting it may be the means of others, more capable than myself, of letting people outside their own municipality know what advance is being made in the cause of education. An addition to the Model School building here has been built during the past summer, size 35 by 54 feet, two storeys, thereby exactly doubling the holding capacity of the former building. The building now shows a front of 90 by 35 feet on north end, and 55 on south, basement 10 feet high of solid masonry under whole building; three furnaces.
The Commissioners have added a new and most important feature in connection with the school curriculum, viz., a business department, under the management of Mr. H. C. Smith, of Albert College, Belleville, Ont., gold medallist of 1890. The subjects taught are: Banking, Bookkeeping, Telegraphy, Shorthand, Typewriting, Penmanship and Business Correspondence. Only fifteen pupils have as yet availed themselves of this course, but the Commissioners think this number will be increased shortly. The fees are placed within the reach of all, $30 for seven months. There being no other school of this kind, that I know of, nearer than Montreal, I have no doubt but that when its great usefulness dawns upon the public at large, it will be a success. If a grant from the Educational Fund could be had, even though small, until this school becomes self-sustaining, it would be a great encouragement to the Commissioners who have shouldered the whole responsibility. I am, dear sir, yours respectfully,
EDWARD S. BAKER,
Books Received and Reviewed.
ETHICS FOR YOUNG PEOPLE, by C. C. Everett, Professor of Theology, in Harvard University, and published by the Messrs. Ginn & Co., Boston, U.S.A., is a book which is well worthy the teachers' attention. Professor Everett has certainly done much in this little work towards stimulating a right way of thinking in young minds, as well as leading them to a knowledge of right and wrong. Even if not used by the pupils themselves, it would be of great assistance to the teacher by suggesting a systematic and logical line of work for instruction in morals, and the subject matter might be made to furnish excellent material for each lesson.
CESAR. BELLUM GALLICUM. BOOKS I. AND II., by Samuel Woods, M.A., Principal of Collegiate Institute, London, Ontario, and VIRGIL. NEID. BOOK I., by J. E. Wetherell, B. A., published by the Messrs. Gage & Co., Toronto. These editions of the above works
contain, besides the text, a vocabulary of all words which occur, and a collection of extensive and well-chosen notes, as well as other information valuable to the student.
HISTORICAL GRAMMAR OF THE GERMAN LANGUAGE, by Emil Trechmann, M.A., Ph.D., University of Sydney, and published by the Messrs. Macmillan and Company, London, England, is a translation altered and adapted for English students, of Dr. Otto Behagel's Die Deutsche Sprache. This work cannot but be one of great interest to students of language, treating, as it does, of the formation and growth from the very earliest times till the present day of the German tongue. The writer certainly gives a clear and concise account of the development of the language, and that in a very interesting manner.
ARITHMETIQUE ELEMENTAIRE, published by the Messrs. Gage & Co., is a translation into French, of Kirkland & Scott's valuable little work on Arithmetic, which has been in use in our schools for so many years.
SPANISH GRAMMAR, with Historical Introduction and Exercises, by A. Hjalmar Edgren, Ph.D., Professor of Modern Languages and Sanskrit, in the University of Nebraska, comprises a methodical survey of Spanish pronunciation and accidence, syntax and versification. Dealing, as it does, in a systematic manner with the Grammatical principles of the language, it is a work which is likely to be very extensively adopted by those who make a specialty of modern languages. The book is published by the Messrs. D. C. Heath & Co., Boston, U.S. A.
NOTICES FROM THE OFFICIAL GAZETTE.
His Honor the Lieutenant-Govenor has been pleased, under date the 22nd September, 1891, to appoint a school commissioner for the municipality of "St Antoine," Co. Chateauguay.
25th Sept. To appoint a school commissioner for the municipality of "Ste. Marguerite of Wexford," Co. Montcalm; and to appoint James Campbell school trustee for the municipality of "St. Octave of Metis," Co. Matane.
28th Sept. To erect a distinct school municipality for the Roman Catholics only, under the name of "St. Ignace of Missisquoi," Co. Missisquoi.
30th Sept. To appoint a school commissioner for the municipality of "N. D. de Grace West," Co. Hochelaga.
2nd Oct. To appoint Mr. John Roberts, jr., school commissioner for the municipality of "Grande Stève," Co. Gaspé, to replace Mr. Robert Price.