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teacher. In a little time it will be found that the principle of lines dependent upon one another, which have been carefully followed in the flat, now show their value, and that of comparison, if I may so call it, is in constant use. To make the work easier, objects should be chosen whose outlines are made up of straight lines, forming large angles, or simple curves, with no irregular or broken lines in their delineation; bold models, of comparatively simple shapes, and premising that model drawing is only the first step beyond drawing from the flat, we turn to the practical part, finding that as in the elementary part of the work, so in the model drawing the straight lines must be those first drawn, and all the other lines forming the outlines of the object or group judged by them. One reason for so doing is, not that they are easier to draw, but that of all classes of lines the pupil can most readily tell if they are correctly drawn. Of straight lines, the vertical should be taken first, because it is the easiest known to be vertical and never changes in direction, only in apparent length. Of the vertical lines, if there are more than one, it is well to choose the nearest, as it is likely to be the longest one, and so a dominant line in the group.
Next in importance, generally, are the horizontal lines, they having the same characteristic of not changing in direction, only in length, that the vertical ones have. These classes of lines being always drawn as seen, commonly supply the familiar vertical and horizontal guide lines always indicated in the best elementary courses. Any line making an angle with the spectator will appear to change in direction, and to tell how much it may do so it is necessary to notice the angle it may make with a vertical or horizontal line in the model, or if it does not contain them, with an imaginary one set up so as to cut the group in or near the centre and actually drawn on the paper, to be erased when the drawing is finished. The exception to this is of lines lying in a horizontal plane at the height of the eye; then, no matter what angle they may make with the spectator, they will always appear as a horizontal line.
Two subjects now need to receive especial attention, measurement and perspective. In measuring, the pupil should notice a principle before mentioned, that of comparison, in the rotation of lines in regard to length and position, that is one to another as they appear in the model. This necessitates, first, a certain. standard of size, which each one decides for himself, by making the first line drawn of any arbitrary length. making allowance for room on the paper required for the whole drawing. The
lines in the model are now compared one with another, for instance a line may be 1, 1, 1, or any proportion of the first or arbitrary line, and must be so drawn as to have the same proportion on paper. It is well, for the first few lines drawn, to compare with the first line in every measurement; later, the comparison may be made with others in the drawing if the drawing is so far correct.
To secure accurate comparisons, certain directions should be complied with, keeping in mind that they are given as a means of checking the measurements first made by the eye alone. First, an erect position, with the arm fully extended, because only in that position can there be a certainty of the eye being always at the same distance from the object regarded, or the pencil at the same distance from the eye at every measurement; secondly, the pencil should be held so as to be as nearly vertical or horizontal as possible, because though these lines change only in length, even in this the change is not so great as in angular lines, and by keeping in the position given the same relative lengths can be secured as appear in the model. Hold the pencil so that the two first fingers are on the outer side of the pencil; the third and fourth fingers are held between the pencil and inner part of the hand, leaving the thumb to move freely upon the part of the pencil above the hand; this part of the pencil should then be made to coincide with the lines to be measured, and when the thumb has marked it off, move the whole hand until it can be compared with the line first drawn. On no account should the actual length on the pencil be used again on the paper, but the comparison should be repeated, using the lines on the paper for the purpose.
NOTE.-There will be found in the new Dominion Drawing Books, just published, and authorized by the Council of Public Instruction to be used in the schools of this Province, very clear directions for measuring and a very good illustration of the position to be taken, which will be more easily understood than written directions can be.
I would like also to add my little testimony to the excellence of these books, in the good material of which they are made, easily graded order of exercise, and especially in the admirable choice made of examples of style in ornament.
I am sure also that if the directions given in each Lesson are carefully followed out, that in a short time the standard of drawing in our schools will be raised higher than heretofore.-N. E. G.
Editorial Notes and Comments.
The speeches which have been delivered within the last month or so by the Premier, the Provincial Secretary, and other legislators on the subject of education must have been gratifying to all who have a sincere desire to see our system of public instruction thrive. Nor have the Premier's speeches been
unattended by actions which go to prove the sincerity of his government in its projects for the improvement of the masses. The subsidy so willingly given to the Normal Schools for new buildings, the kindly reception given to the Protestant Committee and the Montreal School Commissioners, and the proposal to organize additional night schools for the education. of females all point directly to the culmination of our educational hopes in this province, namely, the increase of the subsidy to our elementary schools, It is to be hoped that the amount granted to the Committee of the McGill Normal School will be expended in the interest for which the Normal School exists, namely, the training of teachers. It is still a lamentable fact that nearly all our elementary schools are in the hands of untrained teachers, and surely until this reproach is removed from us we had better leave the many fashionable educational side issues of the period to take care of themselves; hence it is to be hoped that when the subsidy lately granted by the government has been expended in improving the present building, steps will be taken to shorten the term for elementary teachers until all our schools are in the hands of teachers who have been for a longer or shorter period in attendance at the Normal School. The sub-committee of the Protestant Committee which has reported on the state of elementary education in the province, while looking for a remedy for the deficiencies they have pointed out, may find it in a recommendation leading to the enactment of a regulation or law, to come into force after a period of three or four years, whereby all the schools receiving government aid shall be placed in the hands of teachers who have had a Normal School experience. Of course, previous arrangements will have to be made with the Normal School authorities to send out from their institution a larger number of teachers than they do at present, which, with their improved accommodation, they will hardly find an impossibility. As has been pointed out again and again, the increase of the government subsidy to elementary schools, and the placing of these schools in the hands of trained teachers are two of the indispensables for success in our efforts to improve elementary education in our province. The government of the country has promised to increase the subsidy for us in the coming year, and the Normal School authorities, even before Parliament meets, will have accommodation sufficient to inaugurate a movement in favor of the second sine qua non.
-The Provincial Secretary, in one of his excellent speeches, lately delivered before the Legislative Assembly, referred to the
manner in which the prizes were distributed among the various schools, not without seeming animadversion. The question of prize distribution is one of those to which there are two sides; and yet the argument used by Mr. Langelier, though not of primary force, has in it much that is patriotic. The art unions of this and other countries have saved many a poor artist from penury and oblivion; and the same principle applied in the case of authorship will, no doubt, have the same effect in fostering literary talent. When the Department of Public Instruction comes to the rescue of our authors, and takes off their hands a portion of the editions of their works for prize distribution, it is doing a meritorious act, which we hope to see perpetuated. Yet the question arises: Why should not the principle of the art union be pushed a little further in this, so that the spirit of competition may be free and the suspicion of favouritism be reduced to a minimum. It has certainly become a reproach to Canadians that a British or American book invariably sells better than a Canadian book, and by a Canadian book we mean, of course, a book written by a Canadian author and published by a Canadian house. Whatever be the causes of this for there are many-there should, at least, be no such prejudice in the minds of those who have the spending of the people's money in the purchase of books; and it is this which Mr. Langelier has been endeavouring to make clear. The Canadian volume should have the preference when the volume is appropriate in style and appearance for prize-giving, while the manner of selection should have in it something of the competitive as an encouragement to our young writers.
-There is always a tender chord touched when a teacher reads anything about the social standing of those of her kind, in which there are the tones of an honest sympathy with her work. It seems to be the delight of some of our newspapers to call her "school-marm," and with a sneer, in which there are three-fourths of pity, to dismiss her from public consideration. But all are not so ill-natured or ill-mannered. Some of our school boards are offering her rewards of increased remuneration and holiday recreation, and we find one of our newspapers speaking of her social necessities in this wise:-"The lady teacher has peculiar need of a restful, comforting, rhythmic, sympathetic social life, and she is liable to find it peculiarly difficult to secure it. She spends the active hours of life with fifty children, more or less, who naturally make a heavy drain upon her nervous energies. They are asking questions, directly or indirectly, indefinitely. She has to watch them incessantly;
to correct the way they sit, stand, speak, look, act, read, write, cipher, etc. Such are the demands of modern methods and exacting supervision that she may easily spend every out-ofschool hour in getting ready for school, and in examining exercises, compositions, and test papers. She is away from home, and is liable to board in a house or family that gives her no social opportunities. More teachers are worn out by lack of a rhythmic social life than from the wear and tear of the school-room. The young teacher especially owes it to herself to secure and enjoy a genuinely healthful and helpful social life. Her intelligence, tastes, character, and employment give her opportunities of the highest social standing in the community. She cannot, it is true, give all her time to social life -she can enjoy none of its dissipations, must have the courage to keep good company, good hours, and retain economical tastes; but all of these things characterize genuinely good society everywhere."
-From the Report of the Montreal Board of School Commissioners, we learn that they have in operation eighteen schools, with an attendance of six thousand pupils. The report gives. the history of the school improvements for the year. Among other things, it says:- "The Board has united with the Roman Catholic Board of School Commissioners in urging the Provincial Legislature to pass a School Debenture Act at its present session, which will consolidate all previous Acts of a similar character, and will increase the amount of bonds that each Board will be allowed to issue for the purpose of acquiring land and erecting school-houses. If this act becomes law, ample provision will have been made to enable the Board to carry out all the permanent building improvements that are at present contemplated. These are a large school in the East end of the city, a school in the centre to replace the British and Canadian and Dorchester Street Schools, an enlarged and remodelled school in St. Gabriel, an enlarged and improved High School, and the introduction of the Smead & Dowd system into some of the older buildings. But apart from improvements here indicated, the Commissioners are anxious that the Schools of Montreal should advance in other directions. The time has come when Kindergarten classes should be introduced, when a gymnasium and drill-hall are needed for physical training, when workshops for manual education might be instituted with advantage, and when the High School course should be revised and improved, and the fees reduced."
-The intimation has been made that the venerable Rector