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-The Teachers' Association in connection with McGill Normal School held its second regular meeting on Friday evening, February 6th, at eight o'clock. On account of the unavoidable absence of the president, Mr. H. H. Curtis occupied the chair. Dr. Kneeland opened the meeting with prayer, which was followed by the reading and adoption of the minutes. In the absence of Mr. J. W. McOuat, B.A., of Lachute, the subject for discussion, namely, "Payment by Results," was placed before the meeting by Dr. Kneeland, who raised some objections to the system at present in vogue. Dr. Robins took part in the discussion until Mr. McOuat arrived to read his paper, which briefly reviewed the advantages and disadvantages of the system which prevails. Further remarks on the subject were made by Dr. Wesley Mills, who urged upon the teachers to take a broad view of things and thus widen their sympathies. He made little objection to the principle of payment by results. It only means the survival of the fittest, and the application of this law is inevitable. But when, in human affairs, we undertake to apply a test of fitness to survive, we should see to it that the test is a true one. It is the fittest to an ideal that we should seek to preserve. That school should be encouraged which educates according to a worthy ideal-not the school which crams for unworthy ends. Whatever test is applied should take into account the moral tone of the school as one important result of a teacher's influence. It should also take into account whether the pupils are acquiring correct intellectual habits and a fondness for learning which will follow them through life, as the very best result of school work. In short, the conditions suitable to the exercise of worthy influences should be considered as well as the results. A single examination is a very imperfect test. The inspector should take everything into account. To be able to do this, he must be a man of much culture and much tact, and he should confer not only with the school commissioners but also with the parents interested in the school. If this was being done, the objection to payment by results is untenable, seeing every department in life furnishes illustrations of the universal prevalence of the law, and its necessity as society is at present organized.
-The growth of school libraries in the United States since the enactment of the library law has been very satisfactory. During 1887 in one state alone twenty-six towns bought libraries; in 1888, forty-eight towns; in 1889, one hundred and
forty-seven towns; and in 1890 two hundred and ninety-four towns. At least three thousand schools have been thus supplied in Wisconsin with reading matter during the past four years. Jefferson county takes the lead in this matter, and Brown, Clark, Door, Eau Claire, Taylor, La Crosse and Washington are among the most enterprising. The growth of libraries in cities, and in high schools, where it is the result of purely local effort, is also very remarkable. Wisconsin is in this way doing a great deal to promote general intelligence among her young people. -The finest school in the country districts of our province has just been opened, particulars of which will be given in our next issue. We refer to the opening of the new Granby Academy, which took place on the 17th of March. We have referred to this enterprise in previous numbers, and now that it has been accomplished, we have nothing but congratulations to give to Teacher, Commissioners, Chairman and Secretary, and the community at large.
-The annual Convention of the National Educational Association of the United States for the present year will be held at Toronto from the 14th to the 17th of July next, and a local committee has been appointed at Toronto to make all the necessary arrangements. At least twelve thousand teachers of public schools, collegiate institutes, high schools, universities and school inspectors throughout the United States and Canada are expected to attend the convention, and a large amount of work has to be done preliminary to the meeting to make arrangements for the accommodation of this large number of visitors. Cheap railway rates have been secured from all parts of Canada and the United States. An official bulletin will be issued about the middle of March, giving a full programme of the proceedings of the convention, officers of the association, railway arrangements, etc., and will be forwarded to anyone desiring a copy on their dropping a post-card to the secretary of the local committee, Mr. H. J. Hill, at Toronto, or Mr. J. L. Hughes, chairman of the executive committee, Toronto. The most complete arrangements will be made to give the visiting teachers a splendid welcome and to make the meeting a great succees. Local excursions are being arranged to all important points of interest surrounding the place of meeting. The meeting will be of an international character, and as it is the first time the association has ever met in Canada, it is hoped that the Canadian teachers will attend in large numbers to take part in the proceedings.
-A Catholic priest in a little village in Alsace punished corporally two girls, aged seventeen years, because they were
about to leave church before the services were over. fonnd guilty of assault and battery. He appealed, claiming the right of punishment as a teacher who stands "in loco parentis." But the higher court decided that, while a school-teacher was by law clothed with parental right of punishment, that right had nowhere in law, and by no Court of the Empire, been bestowed upon any servant of a religious denomination. Since submission under the discipline of the Church was a matter of voluntary decision on the part of the individual, the decision of the lower court was upheld. This decision is chiefly based upon the constitutional right to freedom of conscience.
Practical Hints and Examination Papers.
One of the most contemptible things a teacher can do is to criticise the teaching force and ability of the teacher whose class has been promoted to her own room. The mean part of it is that the criticism is made on some scholar before the entire class. Apart from the question of professional courtesy due another teacher, there is the influence that this censure has on the minds of the children. To disturb the faith in human nature which children possess in so large a degree, to awaken in their minds a distrust in the value of a former teacher's work, however indifferent it may appear to the critic, is to plant seeds in the minds of children which will bear fruit of the bitterest kind. Teachers do not elevate themselves by belittling their fellow workers. In remarking to their co-workers, nil nisi bonum should be the rule. If teachers would win the respect, affection, and appreciation of pupils, they should eliminate the demon of envy from the heart, and plant in its place the spirit of good will."-Common School Educator. THE PROTESTANT CENTRAL BOARD OF EXAMINERS.
1. (a) What are comprised in the term "Dominion of Canada"? About what area and population has the Dominion? What officers are appointed still by the British Government?
(b) How many members in the Canadian Senate? How many Senators is this Province allowed? Name three qualifications a Senator must possess.
(c) How many members in the Canadian House of Commons ? What is the basis of representation of each Province in the Commons ? 2. The European nations base their claims for the possession of this Continent on discoveries and conquest: what discovery and conquest are connected with these names,-Columbus, the Cabots, Cartier, Hudson, Cortez, Champlain, Joliette, the Jesuits, LaSalle?
3. Of the Old French War, give two causes: six principal events, with dates and the main provisions of the Treaty which ended it. 4. Tell very briefly what you know of one of these:
(a) The American Invasion of Canada, 1775-6.
(b) The U. E. Loyalists.
5. Describe briefly the "Rebellion of 1837 "-noticing causes, events with dates, and important results.
1. Show, by a diagram about three inches in diameter, the zones on the earth's surface, their boundaries with names, the width of each in degrees, the correct position of Montreal in it.
2. In travelling from Mexico to Hudson Bay through what great belts of vegetation would you pass? Name three animals peculiar to South America.
3. Of the following rivers say (1) where they rise, (2) through what country, and (3) in what direction they flow, (4) where they empty and (5) what towns are on their banks,-Hudson, Seine, Ganges, La Plata or Parana.
4. Give the five most important colonies of Britain and the main commercial products of each (10.)
5. Where are these obtained in greatest quantities,-coffee, sugar, silk, cotton, wheat, pine lumber, petroleum, wool, seal-skins, silver? Book-Keeping.
1. What is the difference between "Single Entry" and "Double Entry" What are the advantages of "Double Entry "?
2. Explain the terms "Folio," "Bills Receivable," "Sundries," "Consignment," "Dividend."
3. How are the following accounts opened, conducted and closed : -Stock, Merchandise, Bills Payable, Interest?
4. On the 7th June, 1889, D. H. of Quebec, gave G. R. his note for $500, payable three months after date. Draw the note so that it may be negotiable without endorsement. What change would make it negotiable only on endorsement?
5. Journalize the following:
(1) I receive a legacy of $1000.
(2) Borrowed $500 for which I gave my note at three months. (3) Took a promissory note in payment of a debt of $100; discounted it and received $97 for it.
(4) Sold merchandise amounting to $1000, for which I received $500 cash, cheque on Quebec Bank for $200, and note at sixty days for balance.
(5) Commenced business with a capital of $2000 cash, $2000 in Bills Receivable, $2000 borrowed from X. Y. Z.
1. Mention any two principles of design and define them. 2. Explain the term conventionalized and illustrate by a slight sketch.
3. State any cause of breadth and repose in design.
4. Give short notes of a lesson in drawing, the candidate having the choice of any continuous moulding, as the subject.
5. Draw a horizontal line about three inches in length, and divide into two equal parts. Through the centre of the horizontal line draw two lines equal to it and whose position shall be one half above and one half below the horizontal line, making the angles at their common centre equal. Make these lines the construction lines of an original design.
1. Give five of the most important elements which have to be provided for in organizing a school.
2. Discuss the subject of school classification under the following heads;-(a) the object, (b) the methods, (c) the basis, (d) the limits, and (e) the difficulties.
3. Draw the ground plan of a school room for thirty-six children under one teacher-giving first the dimensions of the room-aislesdesks and windows, and second, the position of the windows, desks, teacher's desk, aisles and doors.
4. Explain briefly the different methods of beginning the teaching of reading, and show how you would apply the method you intend to adopt to the first primer.
5. Explain as to a class for the first time (1) the multiplication by, (2) the division of .04 by .0025.
1. Traduisez en anglais :
(a) Il y a quelques années un village appelé Lacalle, dans les Basses-Alpes fut recouvert par une avalanche; trois maisons furent renversées, et quinze personnes restèrent dans la neige! Tous les gens du voisinage accoururent aussitôt, ils creusèrent la neige et huit personnes encore vivantes en furent retirées.
(b) Le premier consul, tantôt l'écoutant, tantôt questionnant les passants dont la montagne était remplie, parvint à l'hospice où les bons religieux le reçurent avec empressement. A peine descendu de sa monture, il écrivit un billet qu'il confia à son guide pour le remettre à l'administrateur de l'armée.