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The Calendar for the Session of 1890-91 contains information
respecting conditions of Entrance, Course of Study, Degrees, &c., in
the several Faculties and Departments of the University, as follows:-
FACULTY OF ARTS. (Opening September 15th, 1890.)
15th, 1890.)

Mechanical Engineering, Mining Engineering, and Practical
Chemistry. (September 16th, 1890.)

Increased facilities are now offered in this Faculty by the erection of entensive workshops
which will be ready for this Session.


(October 1st, 1890.)

INARY SCIENCE. (October 1st, 1890.)

FACULTY OF LAW. (October 1st, 1890.)

MCGILL NORMAL SCHOOL. (September 1st, 1890.)

Copies of the Calendar and of the Examination Papers may be obtained on application to the undersigned.



Acting Secretary.

University of Bishop's College


FACULTY OF ARTS-Dean and Professor of Mathematics: REV. THOS. ADAMS, D.C.L.

FACULTY OF DIVINITY-Dean and Professor of Divinity: VEN. ARCHDEACON ROE, D.D.

FACULTY OF MEDICINE - Dean F. W. CAMPBELL, Esq., M.D. (Montreal).

The Academical Year consists of three terms, beginning on the 2nd Saturday in September.



Assisted by a large Staff of Graduates.

For Calendars of College and School, apply to the Secretary, E. CHAPMAN, ESQ., M.A., or to the Principal.

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There are some things in Dr. Holbrook's paper which the thoughtful teacher may find of the greatest assistance, while examining the origin of the great world of thought. The hint about instinct may lead many of our elementary teachers, worried with what they deem at times the peculiarities of childnature, to carry these peculiarities a step further back to their true origin, and, finding them with their roots in nature, adopt natural methods for their rectification. Nature has no fault for

which she does not provide a cure.

My first acquaintance with bees, the Doctor says, began when I was a boy. The old log school-house, where I learned to read and spell, was on the edge of a wood. The cleared ground near the wood was in those days well grown over with thistles, and when they were in full blossom large numbers of bumble bees collected on them to gather honey, which the greater length of their proboscises than that of the honey bee enabled them to do. I took my first lesson in entomology, so far as I remember, in the study of these bees. One day a number of the school boys indulged in a common sport of seizing bees by both wings and holding them without being stung. Naturally I tried the experiment, but secured only one wing, which left the bee free to turn over and thrust its sting deep into my finger. It was my first experience of this kind, and the pain was very intense; but not



caring to be laughed at by the other boys, I took not the slightest notice of it. I have since thought that the control over the feelings which children so often exhibit on account of their pride is a valuable discipline preparatory to the greater self-control required in mature years. Be this as it may, I have ever since had a profound respect for every kind of bee, and cultivated their friendship whenever I have had an opportunity. I have never been able to examine their nervous system as a phrenologist does the brain of man, but under the microscope I have convinced myself that it has a very fine one, that its brain cells or ganglions are of the same kind as those of man, and that in proportion to its weight it has much nervous tissue, perhaps more, than human beings.

I purpose in this paper to mention some of their intellectual characteristics. In the first place, the bee has an excellent memory, especially of locality. You may carry them miles away from home and the greater part will find their way back. This experiment has been tried on the bumble bee. A considerable number were taken three miles from their home, and all came back; then another lot were taken six miles, and most of them returned, after which they were taken nine miles away, and even then a few found their way to their nests; and it is more than probable that those which failed to do so may not have had physical strength for so long a flight, or possibly they were young bees without experience. This memory of places must be of the highest usefulness to the bee, obliged as it is to go so far from home to gather sufficient food for its needs, and the faculty has without doubt been developed by culture and transmitted from one generation to another for a great period of time. The memory of the bee for the particular plants which furnish it with honey is also very highly developed. I have observed how quickly they recognise those plants which serve their purpose from those which will not, and how little time they waste in trying to gather honey where none is to be found.

The bee has a very excellent knowledge of dietetics so far as the subject can be of service to it, a knowledge which could only have been acquired by a high order of intellect, or an intelligence quick to take advantage of any experience which had accidentally proved serviceable during any period of its existThis is shown by its conduct in the employment of food for different purposes. A hive of bees is composed of three kinds-drones, or males, the queen bee, and female workers, which are all undeveloped queens. It is by the application of


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