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education, but no Real gymnasia. The Real gymnasia lacks unity. There is no unity in its education and consequently no unity in the after-life of its graduates.
Practical Hints and Examination Papers.
-Let the pupils take some common salt and moisten it just enough to make it pack well. Now it is ready for moulding. Let them mould on an inch board (or perhaps a half-inch will do) any map they can do nicely. When done place in an oven and bake it. The map becomes hard, adheres to the board, and can be hung in the class-room. -We received some time ago a letter from one of our readers containing some questions which she had found troublesome. One was this: "" Why is four on the face of a clock marked IIII instead of IV. ?" We copy the following answer to that question from The Fountain, a bright magazine published in York, Pennsylvania: "The first clock resembling ours was made by Henry Vick, in 1370, for Charles V., called 'The Wise of France.' It ran well, but the king was anxious to find fault, so he said that the character IV. was wrong. Vick protested, but was compelled to change it to IIII."
A LESSON IN COURTESY.
Teacher. This morning as I was walking to school a boy ran violently against me; then, without stopping at all, he recovered his balance and went off at his former pace. What would you conclude about such a boy?
Pupils. He was rude. He was impolite.
T. What would some of my boys have done under the circumstances? What should they do?
P. They should say "Excuse me." They might ask if you were hurt.
T.-I think the very nicest thing that the boy could have done was to say, "Excuse me, Miss R.," at the same time lifting his hat. I hope none of my boys could ever be so rude.
Tell other incidents which would bring out points in courtesy, and get the children's testimony each time as to the right thing to do.
Make a special lesson of school-room courtesy, touching on the way of leaving and entering the room, passing between the teacher and class, being noisy when others are studying, manner of asking for favors, and readiness to give help to those needing it.
Dwell on the point that true courtesy is natural, not artificial, and so must spring from a kind heart.
POLITENESS IN THE SCHOOL-ROOM.
1. T.-Many of you who wish to be polite in other places seem to
think it unnecessary to be so here in school. Suppose you were allowed to be impolite in school, where you spend so much of your time, how might it probably be when you were in other places. Ch. We would forget and be rude. T. For that reason, do you Then listen.
not think we had better talk about school manners first? Always try to be in school on time. Never be late if you can possibly help it. When you are late you disturb all by coming in after the lesson is begun. It is not kind to disturb people. It is impolite.
Many items may be given on punctuality, cleanliness, care of furniture, etc., all based on kindness.
T. How many of you like your own names? Suppose I should call you pupil, or scholar, or little girl, or little boy, instead of Katie and Nellie, and John and Harry, which would you like better? Which do you think I like better, to be called teacher or Miss -? What did I tell you yesterday about raising hands? 1 have something more to say about it. When a school-mate is reading or answering a question, do not raise hands until he has finished, even if he seems not to know the answer or make a mistake.
T. When visitors enter a school-room, children should not stare at them, but rather look on their books or slates, or attend to their work whatever it may be.
Seem not to notice the appearance of strangers in the room.
-Children are often more responsive to the higher influences than we sometimes think. A lady, who had been teaching in a private school boys and girls who came from pure and refined homes, changed her position for one in a public school, attended largely by rough children. In her private school she would often ask: "Is that polite?" "Is that kind?""Is that right?" and such questions soon led to better things. "Would such gentle measures have any effect upon these rough boys and girls?" she asked herself. It seemed worth while to try them. She did try them, and although many times something more severe was necessary, she was happily surprised to find that often these simple questions, appealing, as they did, to the child's better nature, were not unavailing.
-Henry Ward Beecher certainly owed a debt of gratitude to his teacher in mathematics, not only for the knowledge acquired through his tuition, but for lessons tending to strength of character. He tells this story to illustrate the teacher's method :
He was sent to the blackboard, and went, uncertain, soft, full of whimpering.
"That lesson must be learned," said the teacher, in a very quiet tone, but with a terrible intensity. All explanations and excuses he trod under foot with utter scornfulness. "I want that problem; I don't want any reasons why I don't get it," he would say.
"I did study it two hours."
"That's nothing to me; I want the lesson. You need not study it at all, or you may study it ten hours, just to suit yourself. I want the lesson."
"It was tough for a green boy," says Beecher, "but it seasoned him. In less than a month I had the most intense sense of intellectual independence and courage to defend my recitations. His cold and calm voice would fall upon me in the midst of a demonstration, 'No!"
"I hesitated, and then went back to the beginning, and on reaching the same spot again, 'No!' uttered with the tone of conviction, barred my progress.
"The next," and I sat down in red confusion.
"He, too, was stopped with No!' but went right on, finished, and, as he sat down, was rewarded with 'Very well.'
Why!' whimpered I, I recited it just as he did, and you said
Why didn't you say 'Yes' and stick to it? It is not enough to know your lesson. You must know that you know it. You have learned nothing till you are sure. If all the world says 'No!' your business is to say 'Yes!' and prove it.'"-Youth's Companion.
-We find in a contemporary the query as to whether the position of the word but in the sentence, "The electors of each district vote but for one candidate," is correct, to which the editor answers yes. Does the editor mean that? Is not but an adverb here, modifying the adjective one, and should it not be placed next to the word it modifies? Here is where the proper teaching of technical grammar makes manifest its benefit.
MORAL TRAINING IN SCHOOLS.-A great deal is being said and well said concerning moral training in public schools. We hear much discussion of the question whether time can be found for it. Has it never occurred to those who are anxious about that aspect of the matter that a school without moral training as an all-pervading feature must be a great failure? I doubt whether there are many such schools. No one can teach long without discovering that the most effective agency in preserving discipline and in securing good results is found in constantly presenting right and wrong conduct, good and poor work in the school-room in their moral light-in the light of their influence on the development of character. If what Mathew Arnold calls the "stream of tendency" on the teacher's part is invariably in the direction of keeping before the pupils the relation of all acts to such development, there will not be, unless in isolated and exceptional cases, any demand for additional means for maintaining discipline. The best agencies for gaining the conduct and results desired in the schoolroom are the best agencies for developing character and elevating the moral nature of pupils. In Mrs. Diaz's most excellent paper in the October Arena on this subject, she quotes Arnold as speaking of the
necessity for righteousness that exists in the nature of every human being. The teacher who recognizes this necessity, who holds to his belief in it amid all discouragements, and who can turn his faith to account in his work, has a means of solving most of the problems that arise in school discipline, and has settled, at least for himself, the question of finding time for teaching morals.-Ohio Educational Monthly.
NOTES ON TEACHING READING.-There can be no good reading without a comprehension of the subject-matter and pride in its proper delivery. Hence, it is important to bear in mind both the thought side and the elocutionary side of the subject. The pupils should be urged to study the lessons both with reference to getting the thought, and to rendering it with good vocal expression. This involves continued attention to all qualities of voice as well as to the meaning of words, phrases and clauses. In reading aloud, bodily attitude requires attention. There can be no free, easy, full action of the organs unless the body is in right position. Remember that there is a vast difference between teaching your pupils how to read and simply hearing them read. Instruct them in the use of the dictionary, and counsel its use in the preparation of the lessons. The above suggestions are given for fourth reader classes, in course of study of Davenport schools, by Supt. J. B. Young.
-General ignorance questions, as they are called, being now much in favour with those who are entrusted with the duty of educating our boys, the "Private Schoolmaster" has taken the trouble to suggest a string of appropriate tests of knowledge of familiar things. The chief of these are: "Why does an apple fall to the ground?" "What is a jury, and how are jurors elected?" Explain as simply as you can the action of the electric telegraph?" "What keeps the earth in position?" "How would you spend a present of £3 in books?" "Why do most leaves turn colour in the autumn ?" "What is the difference between tradition and history, art and science, parable and allegory, murder and homicide, simulation and dissimulation, Bill and Act?" "Name some of the chief daily and weekly newspapers." "Name some of the planets that move round the sun." Why does marble appear colder to the touch than wood?" many senses have we?" The author of this little plot does not conceal the fact that he looks forward to eliciting some "amusingly original answers." Big boys, he thinks, might also be tried with those old established "posers," "What would happen if an irresistible body came into contact with an immovable post?" and "How is it that big rivers always make for,' and float through, large towns?" The judicious schoolmaster will probably deem it fair to postpone these diversions till the holidays are over.
-The help of the entertainment in the school district is not to be esteemed lightly. It may be made a powerful aid for good. If help
is needed for the school library or for school apparatus, no easier way can be devised than that of raising money by means of an entertainment.
HUMOURS OF SCHOOL LIFE.-School life is now and then relieved of its monotony by some of the ludicrous mistakes which are made in the higher standards during the time which is set apart for composition. Some scholars, on being required to write essays concerning different subjects, which they have not properly mastered, put forth some very laughable ideas. The following are selections :
"Races of Mankind.-There are different kinds of races. The white men can race with their bicycles. There are different kinds of bicycles. There are safeties, which a great many white men race with, and tricycles. All the different kinds of people are not the The white men inhabit Europe, and the countries of Europe are not always of a different country to other countries. Some men are black because the sun has been too hot for them. The Chinese are a still more highly civilized race than the Arabs, and they grow tea and silk, and they are sent to England for the people to use.
The following was the essay of a boy, on the "Life of Stanley": "Lord Stanley was a soldier. He became a general, and after he had been a general for some time he sailed to Zanzibar. He has discovered a great many towns, and at one time he discovered the coast of Labrador. Stanley had to go through a very large desert. At one time it was thought that this desert was nothing but sand. When he reached it he found it was nothing but water. It is not very nice walking through a desert which is very wet."
On the "Government of other Countries," the young authors have most ingenious ideas. The writer of the following makes some charming observations:
"The Turkistan of Russia makes his own laws. He can do as he likes and he is often assassinated. He has had many narrow escapes of his life, by laying taxes on the people, and he has to rule quietly, for fear the people resign against him. Every country has its own government except India and England, and these two are governed by the Queen. If a man wants to be a lord he has to pass through the House of Lords and the House of Commons, and then he has to see what the Queen has to say. If she agrees, he is made a lord. Every governor has a country to govern himself, because if we had not a governor everybody would come and fight till they got the countries that had no governors. When anybody is going to fight them, they cannot come into the country without they pass the House of Commons and House of Lords. Then they pass through the Queen's hand. The United States is a Federal Republic, and every year they elect a man called a Presbyterian. In our parliament there is an election every year, and two men are elected to look for the people. The House of Commons belongs to a man called the Speaker."