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perfon or other of his parish almost every day, without any trouble or inconvenience to himfelf. He may turn it into little more than amufement. A walk or a ride may be made the means of holding fome useful converfation with fome of his people. This, he fhould lay it down as a rule to himself not to omit altogether for any day, without a good reafon. I mean not, that a minister should converfe with his people upon none but religious fubjects: what has been faid concerning his feizing occasions for introducing them implies, on the contrary, that he fhould often talk with them on other fubjects; and it is, by entering freely into them, and pursuing them, that he will be beft able to give them fuch a turn as may most favour the easy and natural introduction of his inftructions. Neither do I mean, that he ought at all times to turn his ordinary conversation with them into a religious strain, or to moralize on whatever occurs or happens to be faid. This would be stiff and affected; and it would be forbidding and difgufting. But between this extreme and the other extreme of neglecting all serious converfation, all application of common and incidental things to purposes of piety and morality, there is certainly a proper mean: and this mean is, to do fo on every fit occafion, and to watch for occafions of doing so where it is neceffary or likely to prove ufeful.' P. 131.

Of preaching, Dr. Gerard treats copiously. He diftinguishes the different forts of public difcourfes from the pulpit, by claffing them into fuch as may be ftyled inftructive or explicatory, convictive or probatory, panegyrical or demonftrative, and fuafory. Whether he has adopted the happiest method of arranging pulpit difcourfes, we will not decide. It is evident, however, that, in difcourfes delivered to mixed congregations, more or lefs of each of thefe modes of compofition and addrefs ought to be blended, in order to produce the defired effect upon the minds of the hearers.

He treats particularly of that mode of public inftruction which is much more purfued in Scotland than in England, and which is called lecturing, generally on feveral verfes, or on a felect portion of fcripture. This fpecies of public teaching belongs to the article of Inftructive or explicatory Dif courfes.' Many useful directions are given under this head; but it may, probably, be thought that the laborious profeffor has fpun out his obfervations upon this point to too great a length. He remarks that Dr. Clarke's discourses are. very fit models for fuch explicatory difcourfes. In recommending the method of elucidating, and making the proper application and improvement of parables, he refers the young student to the examples which he will find in Tillotson's dif courfes on the parable of the ten virgins, and on that of the rich man and Lazarus. With regard to that fpecies of explicatory difcourfes, in which the fubject is a particular cha

racter, he specifies, as a good example, Butler's fermon on the character of Balaam. Sermons of this fort, he justly observes, are more rare, because they are more difficult in the execution than others:

They require a great knowledge of human nature; but if they be properly executed, they may often be extremely useful. By being employed about the character of an individual, they will give both a plain and a striking view of what is the fubject of them. By analyfing that character, either as it is maintained through life, or as it is difplayed in a particular action, they will lay open fome of the moft fecret windings of the human heart, fome of those turns of mind and temper, which have the most extensive influence upon the fentiments and practice of men.' P. 271.

Upon the head of fubjects fit to be chosen for the pulpit, he recommends a mixture of those which are doctrinal and practical, or rather enforces the propriety of difcuffing doctrinal points in fuch a manner as to, fhow their infeparable connection with practical religion. He juftly condemns that oppofition which has been eftablished by fome between gospelpreaching and legal preaching, and notices the extremes into which the patrons of each ftyle of preaching have pushed their favourite ideas.

The practice of reading fermons, which is now fo general in the pulpit, he decidedly condemns, and ftrengthens his opinion by that of bishop Burnet. He justly remarks, that

the impropriety of reading fermons arifes from the very principles of human nature, not from any groundless prejudices., It is not the only defign of language to communicate the ideas of the fpeaker, by exciting them in the minds of the hearers; it is its defign likewise to express the sentiments and affections of the speaker, and by this means to raise them in the hearers. Reading may anfwer the first of these ends, but it is improper for anfwering the latter. It is not a natural expreffion of the fpeaker's being interested in what he fays; it does not render the hearers attentive, or contribute to touch or ftrike them. It is neceffarily weaker, more languid, and more unaffecting than speaking.' P. 350.

He recommends, in preference to this mode, or even to that of preaching on mere premeditation without writing at all (after the manner propofed by bishop Burnet and the archbishop of Car bray), that the preacher fhould "mandate" his difcourfes; i. e. "commit to memory the fermon which he has invented, compofed, and expreffed." After fuggesting useful advice for facilitating this practice, he adds,

Though mandating be not abfolutely preaching, good reading is indifpenfably fo. with one's eyes conftantly fixed on his papers,

neceffary to good To read fervilely, is difgufting to an

audience. It shows fomething fo cold and lifeless in a preacher, that what he fays, be it ever fo good in itself, can never affect his hearers. A preacher ought always to perufe his fermon till he enter thoroughly into the fpirit of it, and be able, with a glance at his notes now and then, to deliver it with facility and propriety. To read well, is an accomplishment of much greater importance than many are apt to imagine. It admits of all that warmth and animation, of all that action which is neceffary or becoming in the pul, pit, and will, in a great measure, fuperfede the neceffity of mandating. P. 354.

All who perufe thefe lectures with attention will, we truft, find that deep impreffion of the folemnity of the facred office, which will induce them to attend to the conscientious dif charge of its refpective duties as perfons who must ultimately give an account to God. Such, we hope, in dealing with the fouls of men, will never forget what Dr. Gerard fo forcibly labours to inculcate, that

the paftoral office is concerned, not about the fortunes of men, not about their lives, but about what is infinitely nobler, about their fouls: it is concerned about the interefts, not of time, but of eternity. In a far fublimer fenfe than that in which the ancient painter gloried, the Chriftian minifter works for immortality. If the law, yer fucceed not in his cause, his client may be reduced to poverty; if the skill of the phyfician prove ineffectual, his patient will die: but, in whatever cafe the end of the paftoral office is defeated, everlafting deftruction is the confequence.' P. 13.

Voyages to the Eaft-Indies; by the late John Splinter Stavorinus, Efq. Rear-Admiral in the Service of the States-General. Tranflated from the original Dutch, by Samuel Hull Wilcocke. With Notes and Additions by the Tranflator. The Whole comprising a full and accurate Account of all the prefent and late Poffeffions of the Dutch in India, and at the Cape of Good Hope. Illuftrated with Maps. 3 Vols. 8vo, 11. 45. Boards. Robinfons. 1798.

UNDER the Latinifed appellation of Stavorinus, we can not eafily diftinguifh the Dutch name, unless it be that of Staveren, a Dutch family of fome diftinction. We thould not have noticed this little change, had it not been to reprehend the affectation, begun before the time of Grotius, which, however, when the Dutch and German authors generally wrote in Latin, was more excufable than it now is. At prefent, it is a weakness of the author, which the tranflator fhould have corrected.

The prefent voyager is attentive and faithful; but, in fome lefs

important points, and in fpots well known, he is too minute in his remarks, which are also occafionally erroneous. The faults, however, that we have been able to detect, are fo few and inconsiderable, that we can, on the whole, truft to the fidelity of the observations in countries with which we are less converfant. The first volume contains an account of a voyage to the Cape of Good Hope, Batavia, and Bengal, in the years 1768, 1769, 1770, and 1771; and, as the author died in the service of the states-general, in the rank of rear-admiral, his remarks will appear to deserve greater attention. The tranflator had collected numerous obfervations from different fources refpecting the poffeffions of the Dutch in India, which he intended to publish in a separate work; but he has now added them to the narrative of the present voyage, so as to augment its importance and value.

In the author's track across the Atlantic he is too minute. An incidental error of the tranflator we have remarked; viz. he calls the dorado the John Doree. The fish which frequents thofe feas is a kind of dolphin; and though in other places a flat fifh has obtained the fame name, it differs confiderably from the doree. In treating of the Cape of Good Hope, the writer gives a more particular account of the profpect from Table Mountain than we have yet read.

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It was half past seven' (in the morning) when we got to the top of the Table Mountain, and found ourfelves on the level fummit, which is peculiarly called the Table; and from the flat appearance of which, feen from below, the whole mass has its name.

We here enjoyed the finest profpect that imagination can conceive. Both wind and weather were favourable. The fky was unencumbered with clouds, and the fun-beams were uninterrupted. Our view on one fide was bounded by the mountains of Hottentot Holland. To the fouthward, we beheld the breakers foaming along Falfe Bay, as far as its eaftern point, and against Roomans Rock which lies in it. Between this extenfive inlet, and the Table Mountains, appeared the vineyards of Conftantia. A little farther was Hout, or Wood Bay; and turning more to the westward, the Lion's Mountain, of which that part called the head, although of a great height, appeared to us like a hillock, on account of the much greater altitude of our fituation: it feemed to lie almoft under our feet, notwithstanding it is near ten thousand feet from the Table Mountain; the Lion's-tail, which is more than one thousand feet high, was fcarcely diftinguishable from the plain. The finest fight was that of Table Bay. Robben, or Seal Island, which lies in the middle of the bay, though it is three miles in circumference, fcarce feemed as many feet. The mafts of the fhips which were in the bay, could with difficulty be difcerned; while their yards and tackling were in nowife diftinguishable. The fmaller veffels and boats

appeared like fpecks; yet Daffen, or Badger Ifland, was perfectly vifible. Capetown, upon which we looked directly down, appeared a small square, in which we could diftinguish the divifions into ftreets, but none of the houfes or buildings, the church excepted; which, however, was alfo hardly difcernible; and the fort, which lies at a little diftance from the town. It is difficult to defcribe in how small a fpace the whole of the above, and the circumjacent country seemed to be compreffed. The view down that fide which we had afcended, was in the highest degree frightful; appearing like an overhanging precipice. The profpect of defcending again that way, was by no means alluring, yet there was no other practicable path.

The air, at this height, was very cool and rarefied, notwithftanding the fun fhone very bright, and it was in the fummer-feafon in this country. At Cape-town it was a warm day, for the thermometer then stood at 80°. We caused the flaves, whom we had brought with us, to collect fome brushwood, and lighting a good fire, we fat round it, and had a comfortable dinner.


Having thus refted for fome time, we afterwards walked over part of the Table, which took us an hour and a half. Its furface is not perfectly level; for there are here and there rocky irregularities, though feldom exceeding a man's height above the plain. This confifts in many places of bare rock, lying in ftrata, and undulated like the waves of the fea. On the N. E. and S. E. fides the interftices of the rock are filled with a ftony kind of earth, and produce various kinds of flowers, with which we were unacquainted; fome of them affording a grateful odour, and others smelling very difagreeably. We were fome time fearching for the fifh-ponds, which we had been told were formerly found on the fummit of the mountain, but met with nothing of the kind. In the chinks and hollow places of the rock, however, we found fome very sweet fresh water, which had a yellowish appearance, and which probably had been lodged there by the denfe clouds which cover the Table when the wind blows from the S. E. This water refreshed us greatly, for we had not taken any with us from the town, and were extremely thirsty.

Several fpots, where a little earth had been collected, produced a kind of reedy grafs, with fharp points, and growing tolerably high, interfperfed likewife with flowers, as beforementioned. To the fouth and fouth east, the Table has a fenfible flope, but it is alfo on thofe fides bounded by a precipitous defcent of feveral hundred feet, with overhanging rocks, and black protuberant maffes, fo that it is here utterly impoffible to be fcalèd.' Vol. i. p. 33.

Near the islands of St. Paul and Amfterdam, a groaning was heard in the fea, like that of a man in pain. It died away -as the thip receded from the fpot, and was attributed to a fea dion. The gunner, from paft experience, predicted a storm;

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