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beats, its thought-processes? The wise man admonishes us to "train up" this child,-up to what? What is the goal? Over what track shall its life-race be run? Where are the laurelwreaths set and the victory won? We all have an answer to these questions. But is our answer a usable one? Does it give us guidance in our daily teaching? Let us consider this end up to which the child is to be led.
What marks the progress of mankind from savagery to civilization? How do we differ from the savage? The answer to this query will formulate the gifts of civilization. We are only the savage plus the endowments of civilization. These endowments are the great institutions of the human race.
These institutions may be grouped into six,-home, industry, society, state, school, and church. These six contain all that makes civilization. Cut these away, and we remain only savages. The stage of our civilization is determined by the degree in which we honor all these and recognize their relative value as ends in the up-bringing of a human soul. Of these, religion, the function of the church, is the most vital, and its relation to the others is, next to its own observance, the most important problem to be worked out in the education of each child. The end, then, is to train the child to live
completely. To live completely is to live in active sympathy with these great institutions of our civilization. To "train up" means to train the child to an understanding of these great institutions and to a cheerful and cordial acceptance of their worth as personal possessions of his own soul. The first five named are the institutions usually honored in the secular school. The last and the greatest is peculiarly the one whose significance is unfolded in the Sunday-school. To train up a child to a religious life, a life of service, patterned after the perfect life of the Son of God, is, then, the end we have in mind. This implies that religious life must also be understood as a vital equipment for right interpretation of these other great institutions. To live completely means not only to live religiously, but it also means to live in a home sanctified by religion, to apply the principles of religion to one's daily toil, to cultivate only religious associations, to labor for a religious government, and to promote only such education as comprehends the words of Jesus: "And this is life eternal, that they should know thee the only true God, and him whom thou didst send, even Jesus Christ."
Here let us pause and formulate the end of education that the Sunday-school should foster. See clearly what it means to train a soul up into
high and holy service.
The End for the
Fix this end firmly in your mind. It is only by doing this that we shall know how to interpret the lessons and quicken the activities of the pupils. Note also that a clear comprehension of a definite end to a large degree determines the process by which it is attained. Longfellow, in an eloquent plea for the birds, calls their habitations in the tree tops "half-way houses on the road to heaven." Let us see that each lesson we teach becomes for our pupils a distinct advance to the same ultimate goal.
QUESTIONS AND SUGGESTIONS.
For testing one's grasp of the subject, and
What makes one fact of knowledge more valuable than another?
Point out the danger of hasty generalizations.
Had you been the principal in the case cited what would you have said to the teacher?
Just what do you understand to be the function of the soul's power called reason?
Is the test of reason the final test of truth? Why? Construct a diagram showing the relation of psychologic law to educational principle, to general method, and to special method.
How does teacher-training for the Sunday-school differ from the training of the teacher of the secular school? In what aspects do they agree?
What is the end of education generally? Of religious education?
What is the meaning of the command, "Train up a child?"
Define civilization, and enumerate its gifts to the human race.
How does religion relate itself to the other great institutions of civilization?
When the pupils are ours to educate, what is the end we should keep constantly in mind?
Does every lesson you teach count mightily for the final purposes of life?
In what way does the aim of the Sunday-school differ from the aim of the secular school?
Does the secular school give a complete education?
SOME LAWS OF TEACHING
AMIEL tells us "Never to tire, never to
grow cold; to be patient, sympathetic, tender; to look for the budding flower and the opening heart; to hope always, like God; to love always, this is duty." It is also a figuring of the process of teaching.
I commend his words as a wise guidance for the teacher. This process of teaching is conditioned by the end set in the soul of the teacher. If that end be the training of the individual to right relations to the great institution of our civilization, the individual may then be said to live completely. To the achievement of this end we must seek to give intellectual, moral, and physical training to the pupil. Yet even in the Sunday-school our training is over-intellectualized. We seem to be more zealous in developing the intellect than we are in developing the moral or religious life. We have a craving for results that may be measured. We have learned how to measure knowledge. We have not so fully learned how to measure the products of the emo