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What, then, is the value of the question as a teaching agency? The question has always been regarded as a most important means of stimulating thought, and of creating knowledge in the soul. Direct teaching is too frequently telling, and telling is always poor teaching. Indirect teaching is usually good teaching. It aims to stimulate inquiry in the soul of the learner. It leads him to discover truth for himself. He has, as a result, the joy of discovery, the added power of increased thought-ability due to the exercise of his powers, and the fuller inter-relation of his facts of knowledge one with another.

Knowledge a
Source of Joy

The soul is so constituted that its own products, the products of its own activity, yield for it the longest measure of joy. The student in botany who finds in some sequestered nook a rare and early blossom is overjoyed. He has made a discovery so delightfully surprising that for the time he thinks and talks only of the thing that has so enraptured him. I recall a pupil of mine, dull and listless in his work for a year, who was finally persuaded to study botany. He did his text-book work indifferently, but early in June, upon a rainy afternoon, he accompanied his classmates to a secret haunt of the orchid family. Here the boy unexpectedly discovered a rare white orchid, and, throwing himself upon

the wet ground beside the beautiful flower, wept for joy. In his moment of supreme exaltation he called alternately upon his teacher and his God. He found the thing he loved. It opened his soul to these exquisite thoughts of God and he became a botanist of note. So always is the feeling in the pupil when in answer to a wise questioner he finds new truth full-born in his soul.

When the narrative of facts is, at a prudentlyconsidered interval, broken to ask a question, the whole mental complex is changed. The passive and receptive quality of soul is changed to an active and expressive quality. The tension of actual thought is felt. The powers of the soul are in action. They are thus quickened to act by the use of the question. Do you see how this really occurs now in your own thought processes?

This power of the question to The Law Stated compel active states of soul results in the strengthening of the powers thus exercised. They obey the wellknown law, development by exercise.

The most significant gain to the learner, under wise questioning, is due to the fact that when a question is unanswered in the soul, it stands as a menace and as a challenge to all knowledge in the soul. Instantly all that we know is marshaled in review before the new and unrecognized

thing in consciousness. This calling upon all that we know to identify what is new is of farreaching value. It gives us manysided relational knowledge.

The Unanswered
Question

Each relation set up is an enrichment of the soul. Each relation discovered is a new fact of knowledge in the soul. Each answer formulated and pronounced is a strengthening and significant influence in giving quality and character to the whole mental complex.

There are three types of questions that may be regarded as of sufficient value to be considered in this discussion,-the direct question, the Socratic question, and the Master's question.

The Direct
Question

The direct question asks for specific data possessed by the pupil as a result of his study. It is a common and useful form of teaching. "What is the lesson for the day?" "What is the Golden Text?" "What persons are presented in this lesson?" These are types of the direct question. In its use the teacher assumes that the pupil has had time and data for study. The question is a means of testing the fidelity of the pupil to his assigned task. Then the direct question is necessarily limited as a teaching agency to that aspect of the instructional process usually regarded as the test, the review, or the examination. It is of use also in revealing

to the teacher the inadequacy or inequality of the learner's preparation. Thus the teacher has a means of proving his pupils, and of teaching most carefully and fully these things which the pupil failed properly to grasp. The result should be an adequate and equal arrangement of the facts of knowledge in the student's soul. His education may then be said to develop harmoniously all the powers of the soul.

Socrates was the wisest teacher of ancient Greece. His method was unequaled among all his countrymen. His pupils were as loyal, as devoted, as enthusiastic, as one could wish for. He was brave enough to die for his beliefs, and he was skilful enough to impress his beliefs indelibly upon his pupils. How did he teach? Under direct questioning the teacher assumes that by study the pupil acquires the answer to the question. Socrates assumed that all truth is inherent in each soul. But the individual is not aware of the content of his soul. The vital function of education is to make each soul aware of its own content. How is that to be done? By such a judicious use of questions as to lead each unknown element of knowledge in the soul to reveal its identity and its relation to all other elements of knowledge in the soul. Thus without education we know not what is innately in

The Socratic
Question

the soul. Education is the process of self-comprehension. "Know thyself" was his motto. He uses the question as a potent means of attaining the end indicated. But his presupposition is wrong. We no longer think or believe that all knowledge is innately set in each soul by some power not ourselves. We believe that knowledge arises in the soul by reason of the presentation of objects from without, through sensation to consciousness. The soul God gives. Its capacities he sets. Its content we build.

Jesus used the direct question, as we all do when we desire to test the fidelity of preparation in our pupils. But he used a type of question unique in teaching. He assumes that primary knowledge in the soul arises from presenting things to the senses. That these varied sensepresentations are often vague and apparently contradicting, and hence confusing, he also assumed.

The Question as
Used by Jesus

clear, distinct,

He uses the question to break up vague, confusing, and uncertain knowledge, and to set in its place and certain knowledge.

In the north country, beyond the Sea of Galilee, Jesus sat with a chosen group of his disciples. He asked them a question: "Whom do men say that I am?" The disciples gave in reply the conjectures of the people. Some said Moses, some Elias, some Jeremias, and some one of the

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