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his study-window, from whence he might discern the barges andboats about the Blackfriars'-stairs, suddenly he brake out into a great distemper, and sware that his enemies had on purpose brought her majesty thither to break his gall in sunder with Tantalus' tor ment, that when she went away he might see his death before his eyes; with many such-like conceits. And as a man transported with passion, he sware to sir George Carew, that he would disguise: himself, and get into a pair of oars, to ease his mind but with a sight of the queen, or else he protested his heart would break. But" the trusty jailor would none of that, for displeasing the higher powers as he said, which he more respected than the feeding of his: humour, and so flatly refused to permit him. But, in conclusion upon this dispute, they fell flat out to choleric outrageous words, with straining and struggling at the doors, that all lameness was forgotten, and in the fury of the conflict, the jailor he had his new periwig torn off his crown, and yet here the battle ended not, for at last they had gotten out their daggers; which when I saw, I. played the stickler between them, and so purchased such a rap on the knuckles, that I wished both their pates broken; and so with much ado they stayed their brawl to see my bloody fingers. At the first I was ready to break with laughing to see them two scramble and brawl like madmen, until I saw the iron walking, and then I did my best to appease the fury. As yet I cannot reconcile them by any persuasions, for sir Walter swears, that he shall hate him for so restraining him from the sight of his mistress, while he lives; for that he knows not (as he said) whether ever he shall see her again, when she is gone the progress. And sir George, on his side, swears that he had rather he should lose his longing, than that he would draw on him her majesty's displeasure by such liberty. Thus they continue in malice and snarling, but I am sure all the smart lighted on me. I cannot tell whether I should more allow of the passionate lover, or the trusty jailor. But if yourself had seen it as I did, you would have been as heartily merry and sorry, as ever you were in all your life for so short a time. I pray you pardon my, hasty written narration, which I acquaint you with, hoping you will be the peace-maker. But, good sir, let nobody know thereof, for I fear sir Walter Ralegh will shortly grow to be Orlando Furioso, if the bright. Angelica persevere against him a little longer. Your honour's, humbly to be commanded, A. GORGES.' Vol. I. P. 124.

This furious impatience of banishment from the sight of his royal mistress, very curiously illustrates the romantic impetuosity of Ralegh's character, and the extravagant and Quixotic spirit of the times. Perhaps, however, the sincerity of sir, Walter's anguish may reasonably be doubted; and all this violence of despair may have been no more than an unmanly artifice to accelerate his release from prison. He might hope that the extremity of his sufferings might be reported to the queen, who is well known to have readily believed all that her courtiers could tell her of the force of her personal attractions, CRIT. REV. Vol. 5, May 1805.


and who might be disposed to shorten the punishment of one who at least had the merit of acknowledging the irresistible power of her charms. Who can believe that the following laboured and pedantic sorrows were not poured out in hopes that they might reach the royal ear?


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My heart was never broken 'till this day, that I hear the queen' goes away so far off, whom I have followed so many years with so great love and desire in so many journeys, and am now left behind her in a dark prison, all alone. While she was yet near at hand, that I might hear of her once in two or three days, my sorrows were the less, but even now my heart is cast into the depth of all misery. I that was wont to behold her riding like Alexander, hunting like Diana, walking like Venus, the gentle wind blowing her fair hair about her pure cheeks, like a nymph, sometime sitting in the shade like a goddess, sometime singing like an angel, sometime playing like Orpheus; behold the sorrow of this world! once amiss hath bereaved me of all. O glory, that only shineth in misfortune? what is become of thy assurance? All wounds have scars but that of fantasy; all affections their relenting but that of woman-kind." Vol. I. P. 126.

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The letter that contains this passage was addressed by Ra legh to sir Robert Cecil; and to whom could it have been more judiciously directed with a view to its communication to Elizabeth?

His submissions, it seems, could procure him no more than, a release from confinement; he was still forbidden to approach the celestial beauties' of his sovereign, and solaced his retirement with the formation of that scheme which in the reign of her successor terminated in his ruin. And here Mr. Cayley's engaging distrust of his own fasulties returns upon him so forcibly as to oblige him to resort again to Hackluyt's. repository of nautical history, upon whom he levies another prodigious contribution of nearly one hundred and fifty solid pages! His diffidence indeed seems in a great degree to have clouded his reason; and he appears to forget how soon the attention is exhausted by a minute enumeration of petty diffi culties and adventures, and by journals of the changes of the wind and the revolutions of the weather. It is not easy to describe the impatience and indignation with which we beheld his volume swelled by the transcription of narratives by which we learned how the discoverers of Guiana changed their course from west-south-west, and stood away west-and-bysouth;' how they sounded in the morning, and had ground at thirty fathoms, and how they sounded again in the night divers times, and had twelve, ten, and nine fathoms water:* we followed sir Walter with reluctance and weariness through his tedious navigation up the river Oroonoko, and read with the most frigid indifference his extravagant tales of salvages

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and men of Ind,' and of nations whose heads do grow beneath their shoulders;' together with his long lists of barbarous names; his Iwarawakeri and Oroonokoponi, his Cassepagotos, Eparegotos, and Arrawagotos. Our limits will not permit us to detail the ambiguous evidence on which the heat of his imagination raised the fabric of visionary wealth which was to eclipse the splendour and tower above the greatness of Spain. His own narrative (which among other pieces Mr. Cayley has printed at length from Hackluyt appears to be the work of a man who believed what he related. He gravely records the migration of a younger brother of Atabalipa to the kingdom of Guiana, where another empire arose out of the fragments of that which was destroyed by Pizarro; and he mentions seriously certain old Peruvian prophecies, which predicted that by the English this new nation was to be de livered from the barbarity of its conquerors. He preserves the confused accounts of all the Spaniards who first visited Guiana, and particularly the incredible story of Martines, who, we are told, was carried blindfold by the natives through the whole country to Manoa, where he resided seven months, and which from its endless stores of gold he christened El Dorado. We are then assured that several Spaniards who were dispatched thither by Berreo governor of Trinidad, were dismissed richly laden, but were unfortunately robbed and murdered on their return by certain unmannerly knaves among the savages before they could realize the hopes of their impatient countrymen. The reports of the Indians were also eagerly heard and implicitly relied on: these were addressed both to the curiosity and the avarice of the adventurers; for they at one! time promised regions teeming with treasure, and at another told of nations with eyes in their shoulders, and mouths in the middle of their breasts;-which (continues sir Walter) though it may be thought a mere fable, yet for mine own part I am resolved it is true, because every child in the provinces of Arromaia and Canuri affirm the same; and their name is Ewaipanoma.' Vol. I. P. 203. A fancy occupied by dreams like these was in no condition to resist the captivating story of the gold-dust collected from the lake Cassipa, and was prepared to find that every stone on the banks of the Caroli promised gold and silver by its complexion. Vol. I. p. 202.

This account was received by the nation with coldness and suspicion. But the incredulity of the public did not deter Ralegh from his project; and copious relations are transcribed by Mr. Cayley of two more expeditions which Ralegh fitted out, but did not conduct in person.

From the scene which exhibits Ralegh as 'capable of the

most extravagant credulity or most impudent inposture*,' we gladly pass to that in which he appears in the character of a patriot and a hero. The year 1596, memorable for the destruction of the Spanish fleet at Cadiz, was perhaps the most glorious of his life. In this perilous service he was honoured with a distinguished command, which gave him an opportunity to display the most masterly skill and steady valour. The success of the expedition may perhaps be in a great degree ascribed to his intrepidity and conduct; and the queen was so fully convinced of the value of his services, that the influence of Essex could not prevent his restoration to her confidence. It was not to be expected that the author would willingly tax his own powers with the description of this splendid engagement; fortunately his labour is spared and his diffidence relieved by an authentic narrative by sir Walter himself, with the insertion of which we were not greatly displeased, as it relates the particulars of the attack with considerable spirit, though in a style which shews that he was not disposed to form an unfavourable estimate of his own merits. Vol. I. p. 267274.

The rest of the first volume is occupied chiefly by an account of the ill-concerted expedition to the Azores in 1597, in which Ralegh excited the resentment of Essex by a daring breach of orders in commencing alone an attack on the island of Fayal, and thus robbing him of his share in the glory of its success. The jealousy of the rivals was afterwards thinly veiled by the treacherous disguise of seeming cordiality; but at the execution of Essex, Ralegh, it is thought, was unable to repress some indecent symptoms of triumphant satisfaction, which rendered him extremely unpopular, and possibly led many to believe that he was actively instrumental in the ruin of this idol of the multitude. That he was persuaded of the necessity of sacrificing the favourite, will scarcely be doubted after the perusal of the following letter to Cecil, which has been preserved among the Burleigh papers.

Sir, I am not wise enough to give you advice; but if you take it for a good counsel to relent toward this tyrant, you will repent it when it shall be too late. His malice is fixed, and will not evaporate by any of your mild courses; for he will ascribe the alteration to her majesty's pusillanimity, and not to your good nature, knowing that you work but upon her humour, and not out of any love toward him. The less you make him, the less he shall be able to harm you and yours; and if her majesty's favour fail him, he will again decline to a common person. For after-revenges,

* Hume.

fear them not; for your own father was esteemed to be the contriver of Norfolk's ruin, yet his son* followeth your father's son, and loveth him. Humours of men succeed not, but grow by occa. sions and accidents of time and power. Somerset made no revenge on the duke of Northumberland's heirs.†-Northumberland that now is, thinks not of Hatton's issue -Kelloway lives that murdered the brother of Horsey; and Horsey let him go by all his lifetime. I could name you a thousand of those; and therefore after-fears are but prophecies, or rather conjectures from causes remote-look to the present, and you do wisely. His son shall be the youngest earl of England but one, and if his father be now kept down, Will. Cecil shall be able to keep as many men at his heels as he, and more too. He may also match in a better house than his, and so that fear is not worth the fearing. But if the father continue, he will be able to break the branches, and pull up the tree root and all. Lose not your advantage; if you do, I read your destiny.' Vol. I. P. 313.

In Elizabeth's last parliament sir Walter represented the county of Cornwall; and the specimens which are here presented of his parliamentary talents, display much sound judg ment and enlightened policy. His remarks on the statute of tillage we shall recommend to those of our modern legislators who imagine that the prosperity of agriculture may be promoted by parliamentary interference.

I think this law fit to be repealed. For many poor men are not able to find seed to sow so much ground as they are bound to plough, which they must do or incur the penalty of the statute. Beside, all nations abound with corn. France offered the queen to serve Ireland with corn at sixteen shillings a quarter, which is but two shillings a bushel. If we should sell it so here, the ploughman would be beggared. The Low-countryman and the Hollander, who never sow corn, hath by his industry such plenty, that they will serve other nations. The Spaniard, who often wanteth corn, had we never so much plenty, would never be beholden_to the Englishman for it, neither to the Low-countrymen nor to France, but will fetch it even of the very Barbarian. And that which the Barbarian hath been suing for these two hundred years (I mean for traffic of corn into Spain) this king in policy hath set at liberty of himself, because he will not be beholden unto other nations. And therefore, I think the best course is, to set it at liberty and leave every man free, which is the desire of a true Englishman.' Vol. I. P. 318.

Probably his second son.'

The duke having influenced Edward VI. to deprive him of his titles and lands.

Sir Christopher Hatton having been suspected of the murder of the late earl of Northumberland in the Tower.'

Only son of sir Robert.'

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