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what ideas shall we not form of the high degree of prosperity to which these western countries may attain, and of the great increase which the commerce, population, and culture of this country will acquire by the union of Louisiana to the American territory.' P. 76.

It is only in spring and autumn, however, that the Ohio is navigable for large vessels so high as Pittsburgh: in the summer the communication with the lower settlements is kept up by boats of a smaller construction, adapted to the existing state of the current.

Between Pittsburgh and Wheeling M. Michaux passed through West Liberty town, where the soil, though unequal, is fertile.

The produce of the land varies: it yields from fifteen to twenty bushels of wheat per acre, when well cleared, but only from twelve to fifteen when that is not complete; that is to say, while the stumps remain: for in clearing the land, they begin by felling the trees two feet above the ground, and afterwards the stumps are exterminated in succession. It may be proper to observe, that the planters only plough the land once, do not manure it, and never let it lay fallow. The price of the land depends upon its quality. The best, in the proportion of twenty to twenty-five acres of cleared land, in a lot of two or three hundred, is not worth more than three or four piasters an acre; the taxes are about an half-, penny or a penny an acre.' P. 95.

Near this place, in passing through a narrow valley, numerous strata of coal were visible five or six feet in thickness; but the country being one continued forest, these mines are not yet worth working. From Wheeling our traveller descended the Ohio in a canoe about twenty-four feet long, eighteen inches wide, and as much in depth; and reached Marietta, a distance of a hundred miles, in three days and a half. The size of the trees growing upon the flats or low grounds between the hills and the river, attracted particular attention. They are larger than in any other part of North' America.

Thirty-six miles before reaching Marietta, we stopped with a person who lives on the right bank: at about fifty paces from his house he showed us a plane-tree, platanus occidentalis, of which the trunk was swelled to a prodigious size at a height of two feet: we measured it four feet above the surface of the ground, and found it to be forty-seven feet in circumference. It appeared to keep the same dimensions to the height of fifteen or twenty feet, then it divided into several branches of a proportional thickness.' P. 105.1

Marietta, which did not exist fifteen years ago, consists of above two hundred houses, and boasts of a dock-yard, where

three brigs were on the stocks, one of which was two hundred and twenty tons burthen.

In the Ohio, as well as in the Allegany, the Monongahela, and the other rivers of the west, there is found an abundance of a species of muscle, from two to five inches in length; it is not eaten, but the mother-of-pear! which is very thick, is employed to make sleeve-buttons. I have seen some of them at Lexington, which were as beautiful as those made of the mother-of-pearl used in Europe. This new species, which I have brought with me, has been named by citizen Rose, the unio Ohiotensis.

The Ohio abounds with fish of different species. The most common is the cat-fish, silurus felis. These are caught with a hand-line; and in this manner they are sometimes taken of the weight of a hundred pounds.' P. 130.

The majority of the inhabitants of the banks of the Ohio are still in a rude state. The greatest part of their time is employed in hunting the stag and the bear, chiefly for the sake of the skins. They live in miserable log-houses without windows; and their food consists almost entirely of maize bread, smoked hams, milk, and butter. The peach is their only fruittree. The price of the best land is three dollars an acre. The wandering and completely unsettled disposition of those who are called the first settlers, exhibits a curious trait of character. They cannot remain long on the soil they have cleared; but, under pretence of finding better land, a more healthy country, or a greater abundance of beasts of chase, are constantly directing their views to points most remote from every part of the American population.

We have an interesting description of one of these men who kept company with M. Michaux two days in descending the Ohio.

Alone, in a canoe of eighteen or twenty feet long, and twelve or fifteen inches wide, he was going to visit the banks of the Missouri, at a hundred and fifty miles from its mouth. The excellent quality of the land, which is reported to be more fertile than the banks of the Ohio, and which the Spanish government, at that time, distributed gratis; the multitude of beavers, elks, and, more particularly, of bisons, were the motives which induced him to emigrate into these distant countries; from whence, when he had determined on a convenient spot to settle in with his family, he had to return, and seek them on the banks of the Ohio, which obliged him to make a voyage of fourteen or fifteen hundred miles, three times. His dress, like that of all the American hunters, consisted of a round waistcoat with sleeves, a pair of pantaloons, and a broad woollen girdle, of a red and yellow colour. A carbine, a tomahawk, a small hatchet used by the Indians to cut wood, and to complete the death of their enemies, two beaver traps, and a CRIT. REV. Vol. 5, May, 1805.


Jarge knife hanging to his girdle, composed his hunting equipage. One blanket was all his baggage. Every evening be encamped on the banks of the river, or passed the night by a fire, and when he judged the spot to be favourable to the chase, he penetrated into the woods for several days; and, from the produce of his bunting, procured the means of subsistence, and obtained fresh supplies with the skins of the animals he had killed.' P. 136.

At Limestone, M. Michaux left the Ohio, and proceeded on foot to Lexington, the most considerable town in the three new states, containing about three thousand inhabitants. Here are two printing-offices, each publishing a newspaper twice a week, two good rope-walks for furnishing the ships built on the Ohio, several tanneries, a patent nail-machine, another for cleansing hemp and sawing wood, and in the neighbourhood some potteries of common ware, and one or two powdermills. The price of labour is high, and provisions cheap. A good workman receives a dollar and a half a day, and can live a week on a day's wages. Dr. S. Brown, a Virginian, had already introduced vaccination, and successfully employed it in more than a hundred and fifty cases.

Most of the commercial transactions are carried on in the way of barter. Coin is scarce, and when cash is remitted to Philadelphia, it is sent on horseback a distance of about six hundred and fifty miles. From this difficulty in the mode of conveyance, notes of the bank of the United States bear a premium of two per cent. About twenty miles from Lexington an attempt has been made to naturalize the vine, but without much success. The general observations on the state of Kentucky contain many interesting particulars, from which, however, we cannot make any considerable extracts. Its prosperity may be estimated in some degree by the influx of inhabitants. Before 1782 its population did not exceed 3000; in 1790 it was 100,000; and in 1800, by the general census then taken, it amounted to 220,000. The face of the country is uneven, but not mountainous: limestone is in abundance, with numerous mines of coal and some of iron. The rivers Kentucky and Green are fordable in summer, but in winter and spring will, from the sudden effect of the excessive floods, rise forty feet in twenty-four hours. Elks and bisons were formerly common here, but as the country becomes inhabited they have disappeared, and gone over to the right bank of the Mississippi. The species of animals now to be found are the deer, bear, wolf, grey and red-haired fox, wild cat, racoon, oppossum, and three or four species of squirrels. There are plenty of wild turkies, some of which, when killed in autumn or winter, weigh from thirty-five to forty pounds. The planters culti

vate tobacco, hemp, and the different species of grain, but principally maize and wheat. Maize is an article for home consumption: wheat flour is exported: rye is chiefly used in the distillation of spirits: flax is also cultivated, and manufac tured into coarse linen by the women for the use of their families. The only fruit, exclusive of a few apples, is the peach. Of the latter a considerable quantity of liqueur is made, both for home consumption and exportation. From the abundance of maize, with the addition of oats and other forage, many of the inhabitants have profitably engaged in breeding horses. The number of horned cattle is considerable; and immense herds of swine róam at large in the forests, where chiefly they find food for themselves, and return only occasionally to the plantations, each person knowing his own by the particular manner in which he cuts their ears.

The manners of the people resemble those of the Virginians, from whom they almost entirely derive their origin. A strong religious spirit pervades the country; but unfortunately, among the most numerous sects (the methodists and anabaptists) it is, without corresponding good effects, carried to a ridiculous ex


The state of Tennessee, which was formerly part of North Carolina, affords few peculiar observations. Nashville, the principal town in the Cumberland or western district, is as yet inconsiderable. The soil is equal in fertility to that of Kentucky; the climate is less healthy, but being in a more southern latitude, cotton is cultivated with success, and affords a much more lucrative employment to the planters than raising grain, hemp, or tobacco.

Knoxville, situated in Holston or East Tennessee, is the seat of government, and carries on a considerable commercial intercourse with Baltimore and Richmond. There is a communication by water also with the Ohio and Mississippi by the river Tennessee, a distance of about six hundred miles, the navigation of which, however, is rather dangerous. Holston is in every respect inferior in fertility to Cumberland and Kentucky.

M. Michaux crossed the Allegany mountains between Jonesborough and Morgantown, and proceeding through Lincolntown, Chester, and Columbia, returned to Charlestown in October, having made a circuit from Philadelphia of about 1800 miles in three months and a half.

A map is prefixed, exhibiting an useful but necessarily imperfect view of the rivers, principal towns, and boundaries, of the states which the author visited, and of the adjacent terri


In general, we are satisfied with the fidelity of Mr. Lambert's translation. As an English composition, many sentences are exceptionable, owing perhaps to his having paid too literal an attention to the original. This fault, however, is excusable, compared with the inaccuracies, omissions, and gross mistakes, to be found in other translations of the same work which have been offered to the public. Still some words falsely rendered, not however very important, might be pointed out in the work before us.

Such expressions as it was them who began' (page 138), manifest a degree of carelessness or ignorance not to be excused; and we have several times had occasion to notice similar faults in translations presented to the public by this writer. However, upon the whole, his present performance appears to be exccuted with more than ordinary accuracy and attention.

ART. XII.-Sermons altered and adapted to an English Pulpit from French Writers. By Samuel Partridge, M. A. F. S. A. Vicar of Boston and of Wigtoft with Quadring; Chaplain to the Right Honourable Lord Gwydir; and late Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford. 8vo. 75. Rivingtons. 1804.

THERE is perhaps nothing in which the French and the English differ more from each other, than in the ideas they have adopted of the eloquence of the pulpit. It would be no very difficult task to account for this difference; but without attempting it, it may safely be affirmed that, in general, the French preachers address themselves chiefly to the heart, while the principal aim of those of our own nation is to convince the understanding. It is no matter therefore of surprise, that the former abound in warmth and animation, the latter in grave deliberation and instructive reasoning.

Of the relative value of these varying methods of arriving at the same point, we do not intend to speak; since all concur in an assurance, that excellence is to be sought and to be found only in the union of the qualities already mentioned. The warmth of the French, tempered by the gravity of the English, would constitute that perfection which is more the object of desire than of expectation. The perfect preacher is like the perfect orator of Cicero: qualis nemo adhuc extitit.'

This consummation' so devoutly to be wished,' seems not to have been unknown to Mr. Partridge; and though we cannot congratulate him on the success of his achievements,

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