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After the battle of Culloden, government, it is well known, felt it necessary to break up these incongruous and dangerous associations. The clans were disarmed, and an act was passed for abolishing their peculiarity of garb, as being supposed to keep up their strong party distinctions, to encourage their martial propensities, and to perpetuate too obviously the exploits of their ancestors. The heritable jurisdiction also was entirely abolished. King William's treatment of the Highlands has often been condemned as severe, but some of the oaths fixed upon these unhappy tribes by a British government, so late as 1747 and 1748, will ever be the disgrace of that period. The Highlander was at this period required to swear As he would answer to God at the great day of judgment,' not only that he had not in his possession gun, sword, pistol, or any other arms whatsoever, but that he never used tartan, plaid, or any part of the Highland garb ;—' If I do so,' this horrible oath continued, 'may I be cursed in my undertakings, family, and property; may I never see my wife and children, father, mother, or relations; may I be killed in battle as a coward, and lie without Christian burial in a strange land, far from the graves of my forefathers and kindred.' Dr. Johnson, whose visit here in 1773, was not too late to enable him to witness some of the effects of this policy, frequently mourns over the necessity which he contends to have dictated it. He says Perhaps there is no example till within a century and a half, of any family, whose estate was alienated otherwise than by violence or forfeiture. Since money has been brought amongst them, they have found, like others, the art of spending more than they receive; and I saw with grief the chief of a very ancient clan, whose island was condemned by law to be sold for the satisfaction of his creditors.' Then follows a correct picture of the clan-system in its first exhibition :
"The name of highest dignity is laird, of which there are in the extensive isle of Sky only three, Macdonald, Macleod, and Mackinnon. The laird is the original owner of the land, whose natural power must be very great, where no man lives but by agriculture; and where the produce of the land is not conveyed through the labyrinths of traffic, but passes directly from the hand that gathers it to the mouth that eats it. The laird has all those in his power that live upon his farms. Kings can, for the most part, only exalt or degrade. The laird at pleasure can feed or starve, can give bread, or withhold it. This inherent power was yet strengthened by the kindness of consanguinity, and the reverence of patriarchal authority. The laird was the father of the clan, and his tenants commonly bore his name. And to these principles of original command was added, for many ages, an exclusive right of legal jurisdiction.
This multifarious and extensive obligation operated with force scarcely credible. Every duty, moral or political, was absorbed in affection and adherence to the chief. Not many years have passed since the clans knew no law but the laird's will. He told them to whom they should be friends or enemies, what king
they should obey, and what religion they should profess. When the Scots first rose in arms against the succession of the house of Hanover, Lovat, the chief of the Frasers, was in exile for a rape. The Frasers were very numerous, and very zealous against the government. A pardon was sent to Lovat. He came to the English camp, and the clan immediately deserted to him.
'Next in dignity to the laird is the tacksman; a large taker, or lease-holder of land, of which he keeps part as a domain in his own hand, and lets part to under-tenants. The tacksman is necessarily a man capable of securing to the laird the whole rent, and is commonly a collateral relation. These tacks, or subordinate possessions, were long considered as hereditary, and the occupant was distinguished by the name of the place at which he resided. He held a middle station, by which the highest and the lowest orders were connected. He paid rent and reverence to the laird, and received them from the tenants. This tenure still subsists, with its original operation, but not with the primitive stability. Since the islanders, no longer content to live, have learned the desire of growing rich, an ancient dependent is in danger of giving way to a higher bidder, at the expense of domestic dignity and hereditary power.
The only gentlemen in the islands are the lairds, the tacksmen, and the ministers, who frequently improve their livings by becoming farmers. If the tacksmen be banished, who will be left to impart knowledge, or impress civility? The laird must always be at a distance from the greater part of his lands; and, if he resides at all upon them, must drag his days in solitude, having no longer either a friend or a companion; he will therefore depart to some more comfortable residence, and leave the tenants to the wisdom and mercy of a factor.'
The reasoning of this great sage on the disarming act is equal to that of any part of his writings:
‘To disarm part of the Highlands, could give no reasonable occasion of complaint. Every government must be allowed the power of taking away the weapon that is lifted against it. But the loyal clans murmured, with some appearance of justice, that, after having defended the king, they were forbidden for the future to defend themselves; and that the sword should be forfeited, which had been legally employed. Their case is undoubtedly hard, but in political regulations good cannot be complete, it can only be predominant.
Whether by disarming a people thus broken into several tribes, and thus remote from the seat of power, more good than evil has been produced, may deserve enquiry. The supreme power in every community has the right of debarring every individual, and every subordinate society, from self-defence, only because the supreme power is able to defend them; and therefore where the governor cannot act, he must trust the subject to act for himself. These islands might be wasted with fire and sword, before their sovereign would know their distress. A gang of robbers, such as has been lately found confederating themselves in the Highlands, might
lay a wide region under contribution. The crew of a petty privateer might land on the largest and most wealthy of the islands, and riot without control in cruelty and waste. It was observed by one of the chiefs of Sky, that fifty armed men might, without resistance, ravage the country. Laws that place the subjects in such a state, contravene the first principles of the compact of authority: they exact obedience, and yield no protection.'-Journey to the Western Islands.
CLA'NCULAR, adj. Lat. clancularius. Clandestine; secret; private; concealed; obscure; hidden.
Let us withdraw all supplies from our lusts, and not by any secret reserved affection give them
clancular aids to maintain their rebellion.
Then, only then, his clanking chains he raised
CLAP, n. s., v.a.& v.n. CLAPPER, n. s. CLA'PPING, part. Teut, klopp. A sudden motion; a blow or sound of collision; the noise of thunder. Applied not only to noise thus produced, but to hasty unexpected or sudden action, where one thing is joined to another to effect the purpose intended. To do any thing unexpectedly; to enter upon it with alacrity and briskness. The manner of expressing applause in popular assemblies, by clapping the hands. Clapper is the instrument that makes a noise.
This sompnour clappeth at the widewes gate; Come out he sayd, thou olde very trate; I trow thou hast som frere or preest with thee. 'Who clappeth,' said this wif, 'Benedicite.' Chaucer. Canterbury Tales. And undiscrete, and changing as a fane, O stormy peple; unsad and ever untrewe, Delighting ever in rombel that is newe,— For lik the moon waxen ye and wane; Ay, full of clapping, dere eynough a jane; Your dome is false, your constance evil preveth; A ful gret fool is he that on you leveth!
My heart did inly earne, And pant with hope of that adventures hap; Ne stayed further newes thereof to learn, But with my speare upon the shield did rap That all the castle ringed with the clap. There shall be horrible claps of thunder, and flashes of lightning, voices and earthquakes.
Hakewill on Providence.
He hath a heart as sound as a bell, and his tongue is the clapper; for what his heart thinks, his tongue speaks. Shakspeare. All the best men are ours; for 'tis ill hap If they hold, when their ladies bid 'em clap. Id. We were dead asleep,
And, how we know not, all clapt under hatches.
Following the fliers, With them he enters; who, upon the sudden, Clapt to their gates
Come, a song.
-Shall we clap into 't roundly, without saying we are hoarse ? This pink is one of Cupid's carriers: clap on more sails; pursue. Id. Smooth temptations, like the sun, make a maiden lay by her veil and robe; which persecution, like the northern wind, made her hold fast, and clap close about her. Taylor.
If a man be highly commended, we think him sufficiently lessened, if we clap sin, or folly, or infirmity into his account. Id. Holy Living. Being presented to the emperor for his admirable beauty, he was known, and the prince clapt him up as his inveigler. Sandys. But here his French-bred prowess proved in vain, De Ruyter claps him in Solebay again. Marvell.
When one that bare a link,
Have you observed a sitting hare,
Glad of a quarrel, straight I clap the door, Sir, let me see your works and you no more. Pope. The actors, in the midst of an innocent old play, are often startled in the midst of unexpected claps or Addison. I saw a young lady fall down the other day, and she much resembled an overturned bell without a clapper. Id.
Socrates or Alexander might have a fool's coat clapt upon them, and perhaps neither wisdom nor majesty
would secure them from a sneer. Watts on the Mind.
CLAP, Goth. klaup; Teut. geluppe, gelauf; Belg. geloop, a running; Teut. gelippe, venom; infection; another name for the disease called gonorrhea, not strictly venereal, yet derived in the same manner; a gleet; a dripping derived from contagion.
CLAP, in medicine, the first stage of the
venereal disease. See GONORRHEA.
CLAP-NET, in birding, a sort of net contrived for the taking of larks with the looking-glass by the method called daring or doring. The nets are spread over an even piece of ground, and the larks are invited to the place by other larks fastened down, and by a looking-glass composed of five pieces, and fixed in a frame, so that it is turned round very swiftly backwards and forwards, by a cord pulled by a person at a considerable distance behind a hedge. DORING.
lar, the extreme point of which is Cape Lean, or Loup Head, on the south-west; extending about sixty-five miles in length from east to west, and forty-two in breadth from north to south, and containing an area of about 1200 square miles, probably occupied by nearly 120,000 inhabitants. A large proportion of this county consists of mountains, bogs, and moors; the soil is light, but the valleys are extremely fertile. In the mountainous parts the herbage is sweet, and remarkably good for the feeding of sheep. As in most other parts of Ireland, especially near the coast, the climate is moist, but not unfavorable to health and long life; fevers, which are sometimes very prevalent, mostly originating in the dampness of the houses, and want of cleanli
The Shannon is the only river of any magnitude, which, flowing between the counties of Sligo and Limerick, almost divides the kingdom and falls into the sea between Loup and Kerry Heads, being for some distance above its mouth about five miles in breadth, and navigable for vessels of 400 tons burden up to the quay of Limerick. The Fergus is a beautiful stream, number of lakes, and passing through the Ennis, which rising within the county, connected with a falls into the Shannon, after forming many picturesque little islands, about thirty miles from the ocean: vessels of 200 tons can navigate it for about eight miles, and after heavy rains it often overflows its banks to a considerable extent. A multitude of small lakes are found in the interior, and in many places water, either forced under ground or flowing down from the higher parts of the country, accumulates in large bodies, until the summer, when it evaporates and a rich herbage springs up, furnishing support in the dry season for vast herds of cattle and a multitude of sheep.
indented with numerous bays, the principal of This county possesses a large extent of coast, which, except Galway Bay and that formed by the mouth of the Shannon, is the Bay of Liscanor, about half way between these two points. It has also a cluster of islands called Arran, the See nearest of which is about five miles from the coast. Rich and inexhaustible mines of coal are
TO CLA'PPERCLAW, v. a. from clap and claw.
They are clapperclawing one another, I'll look on.
They have always been at daggers-drawing,
CLARAMONT POWDER, a kind of earth called terra de Baira, from the place where it is found; it is famous at Venice for its efficacy in stopping hemorrhages of all kinds, and in curing malignant fevers.
CLARE, a county of Ireland, in the province of Munster, bounded on the north by Galway, from the west part of which it is separated by the bay of that name, on the east and south by the Shannon, which divides it from the counties of Tipperary and Limerick, and on the west by the Atlantic Ocean. It forms a peninsula, being surrounded by the Ocean and the Shannon on all sides except part of the north, where it joins the county of Galway. Its shape is nearly triangu
found here, but they are not worked, which is the case also with regard to the ironstone, of which there are clearly indications; lead is also discovered in several parts, and limestone abounds. Agriculture has made but little progress in this country; corn and potatoes are almost the only objects of attention with the farmers; turnips and other green crops being much neglected. The crops of corn frequently follow each other year after year till the soil is exhausted, and if manure, such as sea-weed and sand, cannot be obtained, it lies unproductive for years. The pasturage in the low country is rich and equal to the fattening of the largest cattle; there is a tract of land extending for twenty miles, from Paradise to Limerick, including about 20,000 acres of rich dark colored soil, which, though in some parts it is much neglected, is so productive that it was let at £5 per acre Irish, equal to £3. 2s. an English acre, and even more when designed for meadow; in many
places it is known to produce twice as much hay as any land in Great Britain.
Clare was formerly celebrated for orchards and cydet from the cockagee apple; but of late ättle of it has been made, though it is still deemed excellent in quality. The inhabitants breed a great number of mules; the poorer sort use asses; but horses are of poor quality here. Coarse woollens or friezes, worsted stockings, a little broad cloth, a few blankets and serges, form the products of the woollen manufacture; there are three small bleachfields, and coarse hats are manufactured, and dyed with alder mixed with a little logwood. The fishery on the coast is not extensive, though it might be if properly attended to The boats generally used are such as we read of in very remote periods, being constructed of wicker-work, and covered with hides; they frequently stop a hole, if an accident happens at sea, with their wigs or any article of their dress, and sometimes with their foot, and remain with the greatest apathy, exposed to the violent surf that dashes on this shore. Oysters, crabs, and lobsters, are very abundant; eels are plentiful in almost every small stream, and the Shannon salmon fishery is very valuable.
The great body of the people of this country live in houses built of stone, without cement; in some parts they are made of sods or turf, thatched with heath or fern, mostly without chimneys, as they think the smoke keeps them warm. Their beds are of hay or straw, on the damp and dirty ground, and the pig and the dog are tenants of the same chamber. Potatoes form their chief diet, sometimes they have a little milk and vegetables, and occasionally fish. The men are generally clad in frieze, and the women in red flannel, both made by the family; but dimity and cotton are used by the latter on going to market or to chapel; the men never, and the women almost never, wear shoes. A common laborer earns from eightpence to tenpence a day. There are many schools, and in summer great numbers attend them; but they are generally ill managed.
This county was formerly called Thomond, or North Munster; the origin of its present name is not ascertained. Ennis is the chief town, and the only one of importance, containing about 90,000 inhabitants; it sends one member to the imperial parliament, and the county two. Clare is part of the united diocese of Killaloe and Kilfenora, having seventy-nine parishes and eighteen resident clergymen ; there are, however, very few Protestants, the Catholics forming the far greater part of the population. The Irish is the language of the country people, but the English is generally understood, and, from being used in the schools, is likely soon to become universal. Not less than 118 castles, and many Danish entrenchments called cromlechs, made of earth or stone, are found in the county. At the island of Scattery, in the mouth of the Shannon, there is a tower 150 feet high, the ruins of several churches and a castle, and a monastery said to have been founded by St. Patrick more than 1200 years ago. CLARE, an island of Ireland, on the south-west coast of Cork, about three miles long, and one
wide. On a rock in the sea, and off the northwest point, stands a ruined castle, to the east of which is the cove of Tra Kieran, or St. Kieran's Strand, where a pillar of stone is found with a rude cross, the supposed work of that saint, and is held in great veneration, and much resorted to on the fifth of March, St. Kieran's festival. The island is subject to frequent predatory expeditions. Long. 9° 23′ W., lat. 51° 21' N. Also an island of Ireland, near the coast of Mayo, about four miles long, and one and a half wide Long. 9° 49′ W., lat. 53° 49′ N.
CLARE, a market town in the county of Suffolk, situated on the river Stour, with the ruins of a castle and a monastery, founded by Richard St. Clair, earl of Gloucester, in 1248. There is a weekly market on Tuesday. It is fourteen miles south of Bury St. Edmunds, and fifty-five N.N.E. of London.
CLARE (St.), LAKE, a lake of the United States, about half way between Lake Huron and Lake Erie, and is about ninety miles in circumference. It receives the water of the three great lakes Superior, Michigan, and Huron, and discharges them through the river Detroit into Lake Erie. This lake is of a circular form, and navigable for large vessels, except a bar of sand towards the middle, which prevents loaded vessels from passing. The cargoes of such as are freighted must be taken out, and carried across the bar in boats, and re-shipped.
CLARE, (St.) NUNS OF, were founded in Assisa, in Italy, about 1212. They observed the rule of St. Francis, and wore habits of the same color with those of the Franciscan friars, and hence were called Minoresses; and their house, without Aldgate, the Minories, where they were settled when first brought over into England about A.D. 1293. This order comprehends not only those nuns who follow the rule of St. Francis, according to the strict letter, without mitigation, but those likewise who follow the same rule mitigated by several popes. After Ferdinand Cortez had conquered Mexico for the king of Spain, Isabella, of Portugal, wife of the emperor Charles V., sent thither some nuns of the order of St. Clara, who made several settlements there.
CLAREMONT, a township of America, in Cheshire county and State of New Hampshire; situated on the east side of Connecticut river, opposite to Ascutney Mountain in Vermont, and on the north side of Sugar river; it is twentyfour miles south of Dartmouth College, and 121 south-west by west of Portsmouth. It was incorporated in 1764, and contained 1889 inhabitants.
CLARENCIEUX, the second king at arms, so named from the duke of Clarence, to whom he first belonged: for Lionel, third son to Edward III., having by his wife the honor of Clare in the county of Thomond, was afterwards declared duke of Clarence, which dukedom afterwards escheating to Edward IV., he made this earl king at arms. His office is to marshal and dispose of the funerals of all the lower nobility baronets, knights, esquires, on the south side of the Trent; whence he is sometimes called surroy or south roy, in contradistinction to norroy.
CLARENDON, a county of South Carolina, in the most southern part of Camden district. It is bounded on the east by Georgetown district, on the west by Orangeburg, on the south by Charleston, and on the north by Salem county. It is thirty miles long, and thirty broad. A court is held in it quarterly.
CLARENDON, a township of the United States, in Rutland county, Vermont, on the Otter creek. Ir the west part of the town is a curious cave, the mouth of which is not more than two feet and a half in diameter, but at a depth of thirty-one feet and a half opens into a spacious room, twenty feet long twelve and a half wide, and eighteen or twenty feet high. The floor, sides, and roof, of this room are of solid rock, very rough and uneven, and the water is continually dropping through the top, forming stalactites of various forms. Population of the town about 2000.
CLARENDON, a village three miles east of Salisbury, where Henry II. summoned a council of the barons and prelates in 1164, who enacted the laws called the Constitutions of Clarendon; and here were two palaces built by king John. CLARENDON, CONSTITUTIONS OF, certain constitutions made in the reign of Henry II., A.D. 1164, in a parliament held at Clarendon; whereby the king checked the power of the pope and his clergy, and greatly narrowed the total exemption they claimed from secular jurisdiction. See ENGLAND, HISTORY OF.
CLARENS, or CHATILLARD, a village of Switzerland, in the Pays de Vaud, celebrated as the principal scene of Rousseau's Eloise. It is delightfully situated, not far from Vevay, on an eminence, whose gentle declivity slopes gradually towards the lake of Geneva. It commands a view of that majestic body of water, its fertile borders, and the bold rocks and Alps of Savoy. The adjacent scenery consists of vineyards, fields of corn and pasture, and rich groves of oak, ash, and Spanish chestnut trees.
CLARE-OBSCURE, n. s., from Lat. clarus, bright, and obscurus. Light and shade in painting. As masters in the clare-obscure With various light your eyes allure; A flaming yellow here they spread, Draw off in blue, or change in red; Yet from these colours, oddly mixed, Your sight upon the whole is fixed. CLARET, n. s., Fr. clairet; Goth. klar, signified wine, and riod, red. French wine of a clear pale red color.
Red and white wine are in a trice confounded into Boyle.
The claret smooth, red as the lips we press In sparkling fancy while we drain the bowl. Thomson. The credulous hope of mutual minds is o'er, The copious use of claret is forbid too. So for a good old-gentlemanly vice I think I must take up with avarice.
CLA'RICORD, n. s. from clarus, and Lat. chorda. A musical instrument in form of a spinette, but more ancient. It has forty-nine or fifty keys, and seventy strings.
CLARIFICATION. The substances usually employed for clarifying liquors, are whites of eggs, blood, and isinglass. The two first are
used for such liquors as are clarified whilst boiling hot; the last for those which are clarified in the cold, such as wines, &c. The whites of eggs are beat up into a froth, and mixed with the liquor, upon which they unite with, and entangle, the impure matters that floated in it; and presently growing hard by the heat, carry them up to the surface in form of a scum no longer disse luble in the liquid. Blood operates in the same manner, and is chiefly used in purifying the brine from which salt is made. Great quantities of isinglass are used for fining turbid wines. this purpose some throw an entire piece, about a quarter of an ounce, into a wine cask; by degrees the glue dissolves, and forms a skin upon the surface, which at length subsiding, carries down with it the feculent matter which floated on the wine. Others previously dissolve the isinglass, and, having boiled it to a slimy consistence, mix it with the liquor, roll the cask strongly about, and then suffer it to stand to settle. Neumann questions the wholesomeness of wines thus purified; and assures us that he himself, after drinking only a few ounces of sack thus clarified, but not settled quite fine, was seized with sickness and vomiting, followed by such a vertigo, that he could not stand upright for a minute together. The giddiness continued with a nausea and want of appetite for several days.
CLA'RIFY, v. a. & n. Fr. clarifier. To CLARIFICATION, n. s. purify or clear any liquor; to separate from feculencies or impurities. To brighten; to illuminate. This sense is rare. To clear up; to grow bright.
The apothecarries clarify their syrups by whites of eggs, beaten with the juices which they would darify; which whites of eggs, gather all the dregs and grosser parts of the juice to them; and after, the syrup being set on the fire, the whites of eggs themselves harden, and are taken forth.
Whosoever hath his mind fraught with many thoughts, his wits and understanding do clarify and break up in the discoursing with another; he marshelleth his thoughts more orderly, he seeth how they look when they are turned into words. Bacon's Essays.
Liquors are, many of them, at the first, thick and troubled; as muste, and wort: to know the means of accelerating clarification, we must know the causes of clarification. Bacon.
CLARIGATIO, in Roman antiquity, a ceremony that always preceded a formal declaration of war. It was thus performed: first four heralds, crowned with vervain, were sent to demand satisfaction for the injuries done the Roman state. These heralds taking the gods to witness that their demands were just, one of them, with a clear voice, demanded restitution within a limited time, commonly thirty-three days; which being expired without restitution made, then the pater patratus, or prince of the heralds, proceeded to the enemies' frontiers, and declared war.
CLARII APOLLINIS NANUM, a temple and grove of Apollo, situated between Colophon and Lebedos, in Ionia; called Claros by Thucydides and Ovid.
CLARION, n. s. Span. clarin; from Lat. clarus, loud. A trumpet; a wind instrument of