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ism were fostered: corruption and extortion in public life criticised and exposed: the moral improvement of individual life urged: and the reform of education and civic government advocated. The society offered prizes for plans for the improvement of the educational system of the country. It gave active encouragement to Dr. Planta, who had started in 1761 a school, at Haldenstein, on the lines of the Philanthropinists—who sought to carry out Rousseau's principle of things instead of words in teaching-through the sciences which helped most frequently in the affairs of daily life. Dr. Planta also sought to train his pupils in human fraternity, patriotism and religious toleration. Many distinguished men, who took foremost parts in the national reforms, were educated in this school.

/ Meantime political struggles and revolts continued. In one or two towns and cantons the artisans and peasants succeeded in regaining some of their old rights and privileges; but in most cases all political agitations and revolts were put down with an iron hand, and many paid for their discontent with their lives. But the people caught the fever of the French Revolution, and, in 1798, the inhabitants of Pays de Vaud rose in rebellion against the authority of the canton of Bern. This rising led to others, and the peasants set to work to overthrow the conditions of feudalism, and declared themselves in favour of "liberty, equality and fraternity". Their leaders appealed to France for aid. This was given, with the result that, in 1798, thirteen states were federated, and put under a representative democracy. The government consisted of two chambers: a senate and a greater council; the executive was a directory of five members and four ministers; and

the judiciary was a high court. Lucerne was made the capital.

One of the clauses of the new Helvetic Constitution declared that education was the chief foundation of the public welfare, and in itself of more value than mere wealth. M. Albrecht Stapfer (of Brugg)-a man of enlightened views-was appointed Minister of Arts and Sciences, and at once drew up an admirable scheme for educational reform; he himself holding that "spiritual and intellectual freedom alone makes free". All the cantons were to send him reports on their schools and education, with suggestions for improvement. Federal regulations were drawn up to secure a council of education (seven members) in the chief town of each canton; a commissioner or inspector of schools; and a training college for teachers in each canton. He also provided for the building of grammar-schools; proposed the founding of a Swiss university; arranged for the establishment of a Swiss Society of Arts; did all he could to encourage the formation of literary societies; and endeavoured to preserve, and make public, monastic libraries and collections. He was always the friend of Pestalozzi and did much to help him.

Another man who did much for education at this time was Père Girard (1765-1850) of Fribourg. In 1798 he published a Scheme for Education for all Helvetia, which he addressed to M. Stapfer. Seven years later he was appointed as head of the primary school at Fribourg. Here he did a great work, basing his work upon the theory that "the only, the real people's school, is that in which all the elements of study serve for the culture of the soul, and in which the child grows better by the things which he learns and by the manner in which hẹ

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learns them". All his school work centred round the teaching of the mother-tongue, through which he taught grammar (through lessons on things), logic, ideas and literature. He set out his system in the Educative Course in the Mother Tongue. Girard, like Pestalozzi, was one of the educational reformers.

There was also Emmanuel de Fellenberg (1775-1846), a man of noble birth and exalted character, who, after holding high public offices and mixing much with the people and their rulers, became convinced-through reading Pestalozzi's Leonard and Gertrude-that only by improvement in early education could the character of a people be made such that national greatness could be secured. He thereupon consecrated himself and his fortune to education; being then thirty-one years of age. His first step was to undertake the education of his own children, with a few boys from abroad, at his own house, on his estate at Hofwyl. Gradually he increased the number of pupils; but only by twos and threes so that the general working should not be much disturbed. These pupils were all of the patrician class. Two years later, 1807, he set up a "Poor School" or Agricultural Institution" for destitute children. The farm-house was used as a school, and Vehrli, the son of a schoolmaster of Thurgovia, was specially trained by Fellenberg (in his own house) to take charge of the institution. The aim was to use agriculture as a means of moral training for the poor; and to make the institution thereby self-supporting. Vehrli left the table of Fellenberg to share the straw beds and vegetable diet of these poor scholars; to be their fellow labourer on the farm; to join with them as a play-fellow in their games; and to be their teacher.


In 1823 a school for poor girls was built in the garden of the mansion; and Fellenberg's eldest daughter took charge of it. Four years after (1827) another development took place; an intermediate school, or "Practical Institution," was established. This was

for the children of the middle classes in Switzerland. The pupils belonged to the families of men of business, mechanics and professional men; and they were taught such subjects as were thought necessary for those who were not intended for the professions of law, medicine and theology. Buildings, furniture, diet and dress were such as the pupils had been used to at home. Two hours each day were given to manual labour on the farm; to gardening on a plot of their own; to work in the mechanic's shop; and in household work, such as taking care of rooms, books and tools.

Fellenberg has given his view of the aim of education in these words: "The great object of education is to develop all the faculties of our nature, physical, intellectual and moral, and to endeavour to train and unite them into one harmonious system, which shall form the most perfect character of which the individual is susceptible; and thus prepare him for every period and every sphere of action to which he may be called".

His work attracted the attention of educators and statesmen in Switzerland and throughout Europe. Pupils were sent to him from Russia, Germany, France and England. Deputations from foreign Governments, and private individuals, visited Hofwyl to study the methods and organisation employed.

Such was the spirit of the times-so far as so brief an outline can suggest it-in which Pestalozzi lived and worked. How far it formed him and how far he

influenced it can be, in some measure, estimated when his life and work have been considered. But we shall understand each better in proportion as we know both.

It is worth while to note what was taking place in other countries, in educational matters, during Pestalozzi's lifetime. Bell (1753-1832), Lancaster (17781838), Robert Owen (1771-1858), Samuel Wilderspin (1792-1866) and Miss Edgeworth (1767-1849) were doing their work in Britain; Jacotot (1770-1840), Madame Necker de Saussure (1765-1841), Condorcet (1743-94) were working in France; and Basedow (1723-90), Oberlin (1740-1826) and Froebel (1782-1852) in Germany.

The thought and work of such reformers in education brought about the greatest possible changes in the schools. They may be said to have done for education what Bacon, Descartes, Locke and others did for philosophy: they changed its main purpose from a theological and religious one to an intellectual and rational. For the appeal to authority and tradition was substituted an appeal to science and experiment. Rabelais and Montaigne had done much to prepare the way for Rousseau whilst Pestalozzi did more than any man before his time to put the best ideas into practical form. In all spheres of thought the principle of following Nature and Reason was beginning to become predominant at this period, and it was applied, for the first time, to education. Men were freeing themselves from the bondage of verbalism and entering into the full freedom of realism, both in thought and action.

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