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that is suggestive, and some points that are sound, it is to say the least-somewhat forced and fanciful. Here, as elsewhere, Pestalozzi has let his method run away with him.

One point urged by Pestalozzi is very striking and important, viz., that a mother must expect, sympathise with, and help towards her child's independence of herself. He says: "In the progress of time the child not only is daily exercising and strengthening its physical faculties, but it begins also to feel intellectually and morally independent. From observation and memory there is only one step to reflection. Though imperfect, yet this operation is frequently found among the early exercises of the infant mind. The power

ful stimulus of inquisitiveness prompts to exertions, which, if successful, or encouraged by others, will lead to a habit of thought. . . . The child, then, begins to judge for himself, not of things only, but also of men: he acquires an idea of character: he grows, more and more, morally independent” (On Infants' Education).



The School Atmosphere. The school is not to be a mere learning-shop, where it is the child's work to get through certain tasks, and the teacher's business to see that he does it. The school is to be the home, with a ! difference. There must be the loving relation of parent to child; and there must be, as far as possible, the same opportunities of using the ordinary actions and objects of daily life as means of development and instruction.

At the Burgdorf institution a visitor exclaimed: "Why, this is not a school: it is a family!" Pestalozzi said: "That is the highest praise you can give me. I have succeeded, thank God, in showing the world that there must be no gulf between the home and the school; and that the latter is only helpful to education in so far as it develops the feelings and virtues which give the charm and worth to family life."

When Glülphi asks Gertrude, in Leonard and Gertrude, whether she thought it would be possible to introduce into a regular school the same methods that she followed at home with her own children, she replies: "I am not sure, although I am inclined to think that what is possible with ten children would be possible with forty. But it would be difficult to find a school

[graphic][merged small][merged small]

An allegorical picture; Pestalozzi is in his room at the Castle, yet the Castle is in the scene through the window.

From a transparency in the possession of Miss Mayo.

master who would allow such arrangements in his school."

Gertrude's home education method is thus described: All the children, immediately after breakfast, helped to wash the dishes, and then seated themselves at their spinning. First they sang their morning hymn, and then Gertrude read aloud a chapter from the Bible, the children repeating it after her, while going on with their spinning. Any particularly instructive passage was repeated until it was known by heart. The eldest daughter was, meantime, engaged in making the children's beds in the next room, but she also said (to herself) what the others were saying. When she had finished the bed she went to the garden and fetched the vegetables for the day's dinner. While cleaning these she continued to repeat verses from the Bible.

Whenever Gertrude saw that the children were in any difficulty with their wheels or cotton, she would go to them and put matters right. The younger children, being unable to spin, were set to pick over the cotton for carding, and this they did with great skill. Gertrude's chief desire was to train the children in their work to make them skilful and good at it.

She was in no hurry to teach them to read and write. It was necessary, she said, to teach them to speak before teaching reading or writing, for these "are only an artificial sort of speech". To get them to speak well she made them pronounce syllables after her in regular succession. These syllables she got from an old A B C book. But her chief concern in this sort of education was to make the children observe things. She did not say to a child: "This is your head: this your nose: this your hand; this your finger". Nor did she ask:

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