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black figures on the paper. I see a square yellow figure on the paper. By the side of the square yellow figure I see a round black one. The square figure is joined to the round figure by a large black stroke'—and so on.

"Of less utility were those exercises in language which he took from natural history, and in which we had to repeat after him, and at the same time to draw, as I have already mentioned. He would say: Amphibious animals crawling amphibious animals; creeping amphibious animals. Monkeys: long-tailed monkeys; short-tailed monkeys-and so on.

"We did not understand a word of this, for not a word was explained, and it was all spoken in such a sing-song tone, and so rapidly and indistinctly, that it would have been a wonder if any one had understood anything from it; besides, Pestalozzi cried out so dreadfully loudly and so continuously, that he could not hear us repeat after him, the less so as he never waited for us when he had read out a sentence, but went on without intermission, and read off a whole page at once. What he thus read out was drawn up on a half-sheet of large-sized millboard, and our repetition consisted for the most part in saying the last word or syllable of each phrase, thus 'monkeys-monkeys,' or 'keys-keys'. There was never any questioning or recapitulations.

"As Pestalozzi, in his zeal, did not take any notice of the time, we generally went on till eleven o'clock with whatever he had commenced at eight, and by ten o'clock he was always tired and hoarse. We knew when it was eleven by the noise of other school-children in the street, and then usually we all ran out, without asking permission. .

"I must further say that in the first years of the Burgdorf institute, nothing like a systematic plan of lessons was followed, and that the whole life of the place was so simple and home-like, that in the halfhour's recreation which followed breakfast, Pestalozzi would often become so interested in the spirited games of the children in the playground as to allow them to go on undisturbed till ten o'clock. And on summer evenings, after bathing in the Emme, instead of beginning work again, we often stayed out till eight or nine o'clock looking for plants and minerals."

The commission appointed by the "Society of the Friends of Education " to report on Pestalozzi's work at Burgdorf, mentions that singing and walking often took the place of the regular lessons. M. Stapfer states that Pestalozzi's personal neglect and his strange ways destroyed his authority so that he lost control of his pupils, and the prefect Schnell had to go to his assistance. Raumer, speaking of his stay at Yverdon, says: I wanted to do any work for myself, I had to do it while standing at a writing-desk in the midst of the tumult of one of the classes ".


Karl Ritter said: "Pestalozzi himself is unable to apply his own method in any of the simplest subjects of instruction. He is quick in grasping principles, but is helpless in matters of detail; he possesses the faculty, however, of putting his views with such force and clearness that he has no difficulty in getting them carried out." This is, however, a description of Pestalozzi at Yverdon, when, it must be remembered, he had given up actual teaching, and where most of the matter taught was on a very much higher level than he had himself ever attempted.

Krüsi thus describes Pestalozzi's manner in teaching: “He had, I was going to say, almost brazen lungs, and any one who had not such would have to abandon all idea of speaking, or rather shouting, incessantly as he did. Even if I had had such lungs myself, I should often have desired that he and his pupils, when reciting or answering in class, might have used more moderation and lowered their voices. . . . He endeavoured to teach two subjects to a class at the same time; he tried in particular to combine exercises in speaking with freehand drawing and writing."

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THE intelligent student of the science of education who does not know more than Pestalozzi-and this chiefly because of what Pestalozzi's life and work have done for education-about some of the principles and practice of education has not yet mastered the outlines of his study. The advance in psychology-there was no psychology, in the modern sense, in Pestalozzi's time-alone has been so great that our knowledge of educational ways and means is very much in advance of what was possible in Pestalozzi's time; and the progress in practical methods has, in the case of the most intelligent educators, been very considerable. while we reverently, but unflinchingly, sit in judgment on that to which no higher compliment can be paid than to feel that it merits our efforts to remove all that may obscure the pure light of its great truths, let us never forget that we do but brush the dust from the shoes of a master-one whose shoe-latchets we may not be worthy to unloose. After we have done this, let us, as it were, once more stand back and respectfully take a full view of the whole man; and then shall we again feel that we must "praise noble men and the fathers that begat us". The folly of the wise is often greater than the wisdom of others and we are not holy because we can see faults in a saint.

Nor need we fear to undertake such a task in such a spirit, for men like Pestalozzi are not only worthy of this tribute from their disciples, but they themselves desire it. They are concerned to teach what is true, and to help their pupils to yet higher and fuller truths.

Thus Pestalozzi writes, in his Swan's Song: "And so I end my dying strain with the words with which I began it: Prove all things and hold fast that which is good! If anything better has ripened in you, add it in truth and love to what in truth and love I have endeavoured to give to you in these pages. . . . Such as it is, give it an attentive examination, and whenever you yourself light upon a truth which you think likely to benefit humanity, do what you can for it, not so much for my sake as for that of the end I have in view. I ask nothing better than to be put on one side, and replaced by others, in all matters that others understand better than I do; so that they may be enabled to serve mankind better than I have ever been able to do." He also speaks of himself as "a man who wishes that others may take up what he has commenced, and succeed where he may have failed" (On Infants' Education).

The Simultaneous Oral Method. Raumer had a discussion (at Yverdon) with Pestalozzi on this matter, in which he very acutely criticised the method. Pestalozzi had urged Raumer to teach mineralogy at the institute, and Raumer replied: "If I do so, I must entirely depart from the methods of instruction pursued in the institution. Why so? asked Pestalozzi. According to that method, I replied, I should have to do nothing but hold up before the boys one specimen after another, to give the name of each, for example: 'That is chalk,' and thereupon to make the class repeat in

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