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menced in August, 1822. So great was its success that it had to be removed to larger premises, and was taken to Cheam after the midsummer holidays, 1826. Here the school became very famous, and many of the foremost men of the next generation received their early education within its walls. Miss Mayo had, at her brother's request, been preparing herself for several years to assist him in school-work, and was his right hand both at Epsom and Cheam.

Perhaps the greatest good they did for English education generally was to demonstrate the value and importance of object lessons in school work, and to organise them on Pestalozzian principles and practical lines. To Miss Mayo belongs the chief credit of this. She wrote several excellent little manuals for teachers, viz., (1) Lessons on Objects (1830), which passed through twenty-six editions, was translated into Spanish, and also published in America; (2) Lessons on Shells (1831); (3) Model Lessons for Infants' School Teachers and Nursery Governesses (1838); and others, which proved of the greatest service in spreading sounder views of educational methods.

In the preface to the fourteenth edition (1855) of Lessons on Objects Miss Mayo remarks: "When this work was first presented to the public, nearly thirty years since, the idea of systematically using the material world as one of the means of educating the minds of children was so novel and so untried a thing in England, that the title, Lessons on Objects, excited many a smile, and the success of the little volume was deemed to be, at best, very dubious. The plain sound sense of the plan, however, soon recommended it to our teachers, and they discovered that reading, writing

and arithmetic do not form the sole basis of elementary education, but that the objects and actions of every-day life should have a very prominent place in their programme."

Miss Mayo was very closely connected with the founding and the working of the Home and Colonial Infant School Society. Mr. John Stuckey Reynolds, of Hampstead, desiring to devote his life to philanthropic effort, and hearing of Miss Mayo's knowledge of Pestalozzianism, called on her and invited her to supervise the teaching in a training college with practising schools, while he undertook the financial arrangements. She agreed to do this, and for over twenty years was the guiding spirit of the institution.

Such are some of the more immediate outcomes of Pestalozzi's work. Of the full and final result of his life and ideas no man can form a just estimate; but certain it is that the world is the richer, and mankind the happier because of them. It is given to but few men to do world-work, but Pestalozzi was one of these; though the world at large has not yet fully understood and realised what he has done for it. When it does it is not too much to say that his ideas will never be entirely fulfilled, so true and deep are they. Improved they should, and must, be; exhausted they can never be, in that they are true to the innermost core of man's nature.

Of this great and good man we may say, in the eloquent words of De Guimps, as true to-day as when he wrote them more than twenty years ago: "He died at his work, this noble friend of the poor; and, dying, he addressed a supreme appeal to those who might do more and better than he had done, and continue after

him the work that he had the sorrow of leaving unfinished. In his humble modesty he seems to have forgotten that it was he who had accomplished the hardest and most important task, by laying bare the vices of his time, discovering the principles of a salutary reform, and throwing a way open in which we have now but to walk.

"It is for the true and warm friends of humanity, those who, understanding Pestalozzi, feel themselves at one with him in spirit and heart, to answer his appeal, and follow him in the difficult path made easier by his devotion. To-day the gate stands wide open, and the need is pressing."


THE following five books are named because they are in English, and were written by men who knew Pestalozzi and his work. All except numbers I and 4 are out of print, but they are to be found in public and private libraries:


1. Life of Pestalozzi, by Roger de Guimps. 2. On Early Education, letters to J. P. Greaves. 3. Henry Pestalozzi, by Dr. E. Biber. A B C of Sense-Perception, by Herbart. 5. Pestalozzi, by Dr. and Miss Mayo.

Some other books: 1. Esprit de la Méthode d'education de Pestalozzi, by M. A. Jullien. 2. Pestalozzi, by J. Guillaume. 3. Zur Biographie Pestalozzis, by H. Morf. 4. Pestalozzis Sammtliche Werke, edited by Seyffarth. 5. Pestalozzi and Swiss Pedagogy, edited by Henry Barnard.


The relation of Pestalozzi's theories on the development of knowledge, ideas and language, and on the laws of thought, should be compared with those of the great thinkers who preceded him, viz., Aristotle, Descartes, Hobbes, Locke, Leibnitz and Kant. Some idea of these may be obtained from the following

1. Biographical History of Philosophy, by G. H. Lewes. 2. On Human Understanding, by Locke. 3. The Port-Royal Logic, translated by T. S. Baynes. 4. Laws of Thought, by Thomson. 5. Elementary Lessons in Logic, by Jevons.

The relation of Pestalozzi's ideas on these subjects to those of to-day may be seen by the study of the Manual of Psychology, by G. F. Stout; The Principles of Psychology, by William James; The Logical Bases of Education, by J. Welton; The Child's Mind, by W. E. Urwick.

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