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"OH, how true it is that the teacher without psychology does his work as badly as an old woman doctoring." Thus wrote Steinmüller in 1799, in relation to Pestalozzi's ideas. Pestalozzi said: "I want to psychologise instruction". There is still some room for a modern Pestalozzi. Meantime much may be gained by a study of Pestalozzi's attempts to psychologise education. A study of origins is, to a student sufficiently well prepared, a great aid to the fullest grasp of pure theory; for abstract science, so far as it is true, must proceed from and return to its simplest forms. To say the least of it, he is very much to be envied or pitied who cannot still learn something from Pestalozzi.

The aim of the present account of the life and work of Pestalozzi is to provide students, and teachers who still study, with the material for a thoughtful survey of the principles and practices of one of the greatest of the world's pioneer educators and educationists. Every effort has been made to set forth as clearly as possible what Pestalozzi thought, wrote, and did, and not to expound


what the writer of this book thinks of what Pestalozzi thought, and wrote, and did. Of course this does not mean that no opinions are given; but great care has been taken to restrict these as much as possible. The greatest success of this volume will be that it gives the fullest opportunity, and greatest stimulus, to the readers to do their own thinking and formulate their own conclusions.

To this end very full and frequent quotations are made both from translations of Pestalozzi's works, and from the writings of those who knew him best, and were most competent to criticise, favourably and unfavourably, his work. Whilst this should be helpful as an easy introduction to a general view of the man and his work, it is hoped that it will also lead the reader to the original sources, or their translations. Those who have not thus gone to the original sources will be surprised to find how easily and quickly they can read through books for the reading of which the mind has already been well prepared.

This is to cultivate the true student method. Nothing is so mentally degrading as to regard a book as an examination task, and to be grateful to the writer in proportion as he has done all the thinking, and, so to say, tied up the results in well-arranged and plainly labelled parcels, so that they may be easily stored amongst the memory cargo, and readily unpacked when required. To aim at examination success only, or

mainly, is the most certain way of killing intellectual growth and development.

The educational function of a writer is to do for the readers what the wise teacher does for his pupils, i.e., give them the best materials, conditions and opportunities for self-activity and self-development. If this be done, the attitude and the aptitudes of the research student will be fostered, and a scientific grasp result from a scientific method. In this way intelligent readers should obtain from a book with such a topic as this one, some idea of the evolution of educational systems; of the genetic theory of thought itself; and some sense of historical perspective-which will teach a proper modesty in estimating the progress of our own times. To realise how much of the present consists of the past, and how much more of truth and strength than of error and weakness there was in the great men of old, will reveal to us unexpected treasures of knowledge and inspiration.

So far as the present writer has, by selection, given a particular tone and colouring to his view of his hero, he has deliberately chosen to make it as appreciative as possible. He has sought to include everything concerning the man which, he believes, has done, and will do, good to the world at large; and rigorously to exclude all that is foreign to this purpose. He holds the view that all that is good should live after a man, and all that is not so should be decently buried with his bones

-except in so far as the pathologist of men and manners can make a proper and profitable use of it. In particular it is the educational good which it is desired to propound and perpetuate. Pestalozzi was, educationally, one of the world's greatest benefactors.

My special thanks are due to Miss Mayo, of Riverdale, Dorking, for her generous and valuable help in allowing me to make use of Dr. Mayo's literary remains; and for having copies made of the original pictures of which reproductions are given in this book. I am also indebted to Rev. Canon C. H. Mayo, of Long Burton Vicarage, Sherborne, for information gleaned from his Genealogical Account of the Mayo and Elton Families.

LEEDS, 27th July, 1908.


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