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quently to be traced. The canals are about twenty feet below the street; and the access to them for the servants of the adjoining houses is by a subterranean passage. These canals are very much neglected, and were covered in all directions with cabbage-stalks, leaves, and other vegetable substances, left to putrify upon the surface. There I first beheld a branch of the Rhine unmingled with other waters. This mighty river has partaken of the mutability to which every thing sublunary is subjected. Near the village of Cooten, about twelve miles from Utrecht, the traveller may contemplate corn waving and cattle depasturing where once it rolled its broad majestic waters, now diminished to a little streamlet: its division into the two great copious and navigable streams takes place a little above Nimeguen: the right branch retains the name of the Rhine; the left is called the Waal, a word expressive of a defensive boundary, which separated the antient Batavians from their hostile neighbours on the southern border: the former, during its superabundance, produced a small branch called the Lack, which ran near the little city of Wyk, by Deurstede, directed its course towards Utrecht, upon which it bestowed the name of Ultra trajectum, passed through Woerden Leyden, and disembogued itself into the German Ocean at Catwyk: the latter branch in rolling its waters towards the sea, incorporated with the Maas, and their united streams were called the New



Maas, under which name they flow by Dort, Rotterdam, and other cities, into the sea. Had rivers tongues, as poets feign they have, this much-injured branch of the Rhine might have exclaimed with Wolsey, I now am left

-to the mercy

Of a rude stream, that must for ever hide me.


Upon the subsiding of a great inundation, the frequent terror of the Low Countries, it was found that the Rhine had changed its channel, and flowed into that of the Lack, to which it had given birth, in consequence of its channel having been amazingly deepened by the watery irruption. This branch, in consequence of the power its waters not being able to bear down the obstructions opposed to it, is not able to force its way to the sea, and is stopped in its course near the village of Catwyk by mountains of accumulated sand, and being compelled to regurgitate, is distributed over, and lost in the neighbouring canals.

The French, under Louis the Fourteenth, retained possession of Utrecht for little more than a year, during which the magnificent monarch was so delighted with the place, that he held his court here in great gaiety and splendor; but the Dutch were heartily rejoiced to be relieved of this honor, and hailed with exultation the hour in which with



his troops he retired from the country; this movement, however, was preceded by the demolition of their fortifications, raising heavy contributions, and exercising many wanton acts of cruelty and oppression, which excited such disgust, that nearly all the inhabitants of the province resolved upon transporting themselves to Batavia. Although by this conquest the French had left an indelible impression of disgust behind them, and the regular forces of the town amounted to seven thousand men, and the inhabitants breathed nothing but vengeance against the Prince of Orange, this city surrendered to the arms of Prussia, who espoused his cause, in the year 1787. The rhyngrave of Salm, who had the command of the troops, covered himself with great disgrace, by this unresisting, cowardly, and, as it was generally believed, treacherous surrender of the place. In 1795, when the French troops once more approached the town, its gates were again thrown open, and they were received more as brethren than as conquerors; but the inhabitants very soon repented of this second visit, for the impositions they levied were extremely severe, and the French officers selected the best rooms in the best houses for their quarters, to the great inconvenience of families so oppressed. Upon two or three doors of very elegant mansions I saw little boards fastened, with the names and rank of the French officers who had taken up their lodgings within. The cathedral must once have

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