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and self seems to be a spectator. The products of phantasy take various

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8. Ideals are ideas and objects blended. Out of its revived experiences the soul, as imagination, constructs new forms, called ideals. Ideals are created out of reals, and may become realities. Out of his experiences the inventor creates an ideal steam-engine. When he builds the engine, the ideal becomes a reality. The products of imagination take various

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SUGGESTIVE STUDY-HINTS.

Place on your left the diagrams of the three perceptive powers, and on your right the diagrams of the three representative powers. With these before you study Chapter XII. Compare the faculties named, topic by topic.

Keep constantly in mind the important fact that in its action, as in its nature, the mind is a unit, and that a faculty is merely a distinct capability of the soul.

State the office of each of the presentative and representative powers. Give the characteristics of each. Define each. Name the products of each of these powers.

Could there be representation without perception? Could there be phantasy without memory? Does imagination imply memory? References. For a more elaborate treatment of representation, the student is referred to "Human Intellect," Porter; "Simple Cognitive Powers," McCosh; "Outlines of Psychology," Sully.

PART IV.

THE THOUGHT FACULTIES.

CHAPTER XIV.-CONCEPTION.

XV.-JUDGMENT.

XVI.-REASON.

XVII.-THOUGHT-KNOWING-GENERAL VIEW.

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PHYSICAL

FEELINGS.

THE

INSTINCTS.

THE CAPABILITIES OF THE MIND. THE INTELLECTUAL FACULTIES.

THE FEELINGS.

THE
THINKING

POWERS.

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THE

REPRESENT
ATIVE
POWERS.

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THE PERCEPTIVE POWERS.

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PRODUCTS.

FOURTH PART.

THOUGHT-KNOWING, OR THE COMPARATIVE
POWERS.

THESE are our capabilities to discern relations. Self, as perception, gains the elements of knowledge; and self, as thought, elaborates these elements into higher forms. That we may discover relations, we compare; and that we may digest elementary notions, we reflect. This group of faculties is known by the following

Names.

The Thought-Powers.

The Comparative Powers.
The Elaborative Faculties.

The Logical Powers.

The Reflective Faculties.

The Understanding (indefinite).

Each name is expressive and specific. Omitting the last, these names may be used interchangeably.

The universe is a unit. Each individual, each group of individuals, and each system of groups, is a related part of one stupendous whole. Thinking is discerning relations.

First, we discover relations of similarity, and think individuals into classes. Our capability to discern classrelations and thus gain general notions is termed our classifying power, or conception.

Second, we discover truth-relations, and think notions into sentences. Our capability to discern and predicate truth-relations is termed judgment.

Third, we discover that each thing is in some causal way related to every other thing. Causes and effects, means and ends, conditions and dependencies, antecedents and consequents, ratios and proportions, elements and compounds, in myriad forms unite all things into infinite series of cause-relations. We discern causerelations and think conclusions. Our power to discern cause-relations and think judgments into arguments is called reason.

The Thinking Faculties.

Conception.
Judgment.

{Judgme

You observe this figure, and this, and this. You discern that they are alike in being rectangular and having four equal sides. You discern the group-notion, square figures. Your power to do this is called conception. You know the meaning of the notions vertebrate and horse. You discern the agreement of these notions, and say the horse is a vertebrate. Your power to discern the agreement of notions is called judgment. As all animals are endowed with instinct, and as the dog is an animal, you discern the conclusion that dogs are endowed with instinct. Your power to infer conclusions is termed reason.

Self, as conception, elaborates percepts into concepts; self, as judgment, elaborates concepts into judgments; and self, as reason, elaborates judgments into

reasons.

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