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material, mental, and spiritual-from the lowest plane to the highest.

Educational Laws.-The great truths relating to human growth and development are called educational laws or principles. Thus early you have discovered some of these fundamental truths. Farther on these laws will be examined and applied.

1. Self-effort educates. The soul is self-acting. Spontaneously we put forth effort. All development comes from self-effort.

2. Strenuous effort, well directed, educates. This is the condition of all improvement. Directed endeavor develops power.

3. Attention energizes mental effort. It gives vividness and

vigor. The inattentive mind drifts but does not achieve.

4. Achievement is in the ratio of concentration. Effective effort is concentrated effort. The narrower the field of attention the greater is the penetrating power of the mind. "One thing at a "Concentrate all your energies"; "Give your entire attention"; "Do with all your might"; are some of the excellent rules deduced from this law.


5. Pleasure sustains attention. Gentle pleasure, present and prospective, fixes and holds attention. Painful study repels and dissipates energy; pleasurable study attracts and sustains attention.


What do you do when you give attention? Write an analysis of an act of attention. What do you mean by the office of a faculty? What is the office of the heart in the physical organism? Of the memory in the mental economy? What single word expresses the office of attention? Give the etymology of attention. Give two examples of concentration. Give an example of prolonged attention. Give two examples of change of effort.

How do you distinguish attention from memory? Give two characteristics of attention. Give examples.

Give the author's definition of attention; give yours; give Porter's.

Give the distinction between outer attention and inner attention. Illustrate. Give your reasons for using also the terms objective attention and subjective attention. Give five examples of each.

Why should prolonged attention not be required of children? Why does forced attention fail to benefit the pupil?

Why can not an idiot learn? Why can the boy learn more than the child? Tell what you know about the growth of attention. What do you mean by growth?

What is teaching? Describe the work of the mother and of the primary teacher.

Why did Agassiz find it so difficult to teach science to his students? What do you mean by "scatterbrained"? What did Dickens consider the secret of his success? Is inattention the fault of the pupil or of the teacher?

Why have inattentive people poor memories? What do you remember best? What do you do when you give attention? Why can you readily recall the things to which you give great attention? How can you cultivate your power of attention?

Letter.*-I venture to ask you to write a letter to some friend, telling what you know about attention. Give your own thoughts in your own way. Nothing

* In a long experience I have secured the most satisfactory results by having each pupil write a letter to some interested friend, giving his notions about the faculty discussed. As far as possible I have these letters read in class and criticised.

will help you more. You may be called upon to read the letter. Send with your letter to your friend a topical outline showing your analysis of this chapter.


I. Acts of Attention analyzed.

Objective Attention.

II. Office of Attention.

Concentration of effort.

Prolongation of effort.

III. Characteristics of Attention.

Power of self-concentration.

Subjective Attention.

Change of effort.

Active self-direction energizes all mental action.

IV. Attention defined.

Author's definition.

Original definition.

V. Kinds of Attention.

Objective and Subjective.

VI. Physiology of Attention.
Physical limits of Attention.
Vigorous health and Attention.

Rest and Attention.

VII. Growth of Attention.

Attention in childhood.
Attention in boyhood.

VIII. Education of Attention.

Teaching and Attention.

Attention and Learning.

Sundry definitions.

Attracted and Purposed.

Attention in youth.
Attention in manhood.

Attention and Retention.
Attention and Power.

IX. Educational Laws.

Self-effort educates.

Strenuous effort, well directed, educates.

Attention energizes mental effort.

Achievement is in the ratio of concentration.

Pleasure sustains attention.



By this is meant the capability of animals to do blindly the best for themselves. A mind is capable of knowing, feeling, and willing. What a mind can do is called a mental power. The simplest of the mental powers are the guiding impulses, called instincts. It is deemed best to begin the study of mental phenomena with the lowest and least complex manifestation of mind.

Instinctive Acts analyzed.-We are wonderfully familiar with brute-life. The cat, the dog, the bird, and the horse are our intimate companions. From infancy to age, brute-life interests us. Even Solomon and Aristotle intently studied animal life. We see brutes doing blindly what man, with ages of experience, can scarcely do. The bee builds a perfect cell without having studied mathematics, and compounds delicious honey without having studied chemistry. Birds migrate thousands of miles by land and sea without chart or compass. The animal, without knowing why, does what is best for itself. The blind feelings which lead animals to act for their best interests are called instincts. Observe the sitting hen: at regular intervals she turns her eggs. Why? It took a thousand years for man to answer this question. The hen, without knowing why, does the right thing. The blind impulse which moves the hen to thus act is termed instinct.

Office of Instinct.-Each organ of the body and each capability of the mind has a specific purpose, called its

office. The office of the stomach is digestion. The office of attention is self-direction. The office of instinct is to move and guide animals to wise ends, where it is impossible that intellect should act.

1. Instincts tend to the physical well-being of the individual. Spontaneously the young animal seeks its proper food. Without knowing why, squirrels and bees lay up stores for the future. Without a knowledge of geography or climate, birds and beasts migrate with the season. Inborn feelings move and guide the animal to its own good.

2. Instincts tend to the well-being of the race. The salmon leaves the sea and ascends the river to spawn safely in shallow water. The bird conceals her nest. Even lions and eagles mate. Strong impulses move animals to act so as to preserve the race. These blind impulses are termed instincts.

3. Instincts move brutes to fulfill the purposes of their creation. Its instincts move the silk-worm to spin its cocoon. The bee is moved to sip sweets from every flower. Its instincts move the coral to build islands. Marvelous chapter, this, in the book of Nature!

Characteristics of Instinct.-The peculiarities that distinguish one endowment from others are called its characteristics. How may we know instinct?

1. Instincts are blind but guiding impulses. Bees and ants. organize republics, build cities, and lay up stores. Without knowing the principles of government or architecture or political economy, they wisely adapt means to ends. Blind feelings, implanted by Infinite Wisdom, guide as well as move them. Instincts are the only guiding impulses.

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