Billeder på siden

ena is called psychology. Take education. The central idea is human development. The field is the phenomena of human growth and human culture. Around the central idea are grouped systematically the laws of growth and development. Under the laws are grouped the principles, the facts, the illustrations, and the applications. Thus the science of education is created. The systematic arrangement of the laws of the phenomena of mental growth and mental development is called the science of education.

VI. Terms designating Self.

A Mind.

A Soul.
A Spirit.
An Ego.
A Self.

The self that thinks,
Mental philoso-

We know and feel and will. loves, and chooses is called a mind. phy is a science of the mind. As a human mind is embodied, it is called a soul. Psychology (psyche, the soul; logos, science) is a science of the soul. Psychical means pertaining to the soul. As the mind is a spirit entity capable of knowing, feeling, and willing, it is also called the spirit. A mind is sometimes called a spiritual organism.

"Is mind an organism? If it were, could it possibly be immortal? What is the true definition of organism? The body is an organism, but the mind is something above organism. In an organism there are unity and variety of functions-this is probably the reason for calling mind an organism. But life and mind are distinct; a plant lives but does not possess mind. Mind includes all that life includes, and much more. In an organism each part is the means of realizing every other part, and it is likewise the end for which every other part exists. Each part is both means and end for

every other part. But mind is whole in each part. It is an indivisible unit in knowing, in willing, and in feeling."

Mind, soul, and spirit are now used in literature and science as synonyms. Occasionally we find mind still used in the sense of intellect. Soul was formerly used to designate animal life and instincts. Spirit is sometimes used vaguely to designate something, no one knows what, different from mind. But these distinctions are now practically obsolete.

To the scholar as to the millions, the self that knows, feels, and wills, is the mind, the soul, the spirit.


Review.-Give a distinction between attention and instinct. Give the office of attention; of instinct. Give the characteristics of attention and also of instinct. State the relation between instinct and intellect, etc.

Why are some hard words necessary? How do you work out definitions? Give the etymology and meaning of phenomena. Write a definition of physical phenomena; mental phenomena. Illustrate each.

Why is the unfamiliar word noumena used? Have we any familiar word that expresses the idea? Write a definition of substance; of matter; of mind. Give a distinction between phenomena and noumena; between mind and matter. Are you sure you grasp the distinction?

Give the synonyms of energy. Write a definition of energy in which all occur. Write a definition of physical force; of soulenergy. What relation do you discover between the lower and the higher energies? Is the universe a unit?

Write a definition of laws; of physical laws; of mental laws. Give a distinction between an energy and a law. What do you mean by laws of phenomena ?

Why is mere classified knowledge not science? Write a definition of science; of physical science; of psychology; of education.

Give the etymology and meaning of psychology, psychological, psychologist, and psychical.

Define mind; soul; spirit; ego; self. What do you mean by a causa-sui? Show that a mind is not an organism. Give distinctions sometimes made between mind, soul, and spirit. Are these terms now generally used as synonyms?


[blocks in formation]

VI. A Noumenon endowed with Soul-Energies is called

[blocks in formation]



WE see the landscape, hear the song of birds, smell the rose, taste the orange, touch the paper, press the hand of friendship. Vibrations caused by light and sound and odor and flavor and contact excite the organism. The mind feels the excitation. These feelings are called sensations. The part of the organism thus excited is called the sensorium. The sensorium is here used to include sensor ganglia, sensor nerves, and sensor organs. You have diligently studied the body, the organism in which we live and work. You will now re-examine the brain and nerves from the stand-point of mind. Here you find the bridge that connects mind and matter.

A Nerve-Cell is a microscopic clot of granulated gray matter. Each cell is inclosed and has one or more connections. The cell substance is granular and extremely mobile. An excitant, as odor-waves or light-waves, causes molecular changes in the cell

substance. The conscious feeling of the excitation of sensor nerve-cells is known as sensation. In a human brain there are estimated to be more than a billion of these nerve-cells.*

* By permission the above cut is taken from Tracy's "Physiology."

A Ganglion is a group of nerve-cells connected by nerve-fibers. Ganglia have nerve - connections with other ganglia. The gray matter of the brain is organized into ganglionic groups. "The mind uses the gray matter in some unknown way to affect the body, or to


gain impressions through the body." Draw a group of nerve-cells; connect the cells as you do the cells of a battery; inclose by a membrane; make nerve-connections with similar groups. You will have a rude picture of a ganglion, as in the above cut.* Reflex sensor ganglia are found in the roots of the spinal nerves and throughout the sympathetic system.

A Nerve is a white connecting cord through which nerve-currents pass. These nerve-fibers permeate the system and form the white matter of the brain, the spinal cord, etc.

1. Structure. A nerve consists of three parts: (1.) The external sheath, a transparent membrane; (2.) The

* Taken by permission from Bastian's "Brain the Organ of Mind."

« ForrigeFortsæt »