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Organism and Products of Sense-perception.-This diagram is not claimed to be either perfect or exhaustive, but is designed to suggest lines of inquiry. What knowledge do we gain directly through each sense? What indirectly? What excitants affect each sensor apparatus? etc. The student is referred to recent physiologies for descriptions and details. Please re-read Chapters IV and V in connection with this diagram.

Growth of Sense-Perception.-As matter is endowed with the force of gravity, so mind is endowed with the power of sense-perception. Infants, idiots, and even the lowest orders of animals give indications of possessing rudimentary sense-perception. Your observation satisfies you that sense-perceiving is one of your first mental activities. Until awakened by sensations, the soul in all its embryonic powers seems dormant. Is it? Who can tell? Life is the deepest of all mysteries. The beginnings of soul-activity are shrouded from mortal view. One fact is now unquestioned: an infant is endowed with capabilities, but not with ideas. All ideas are acquired. In early infancy the babe begins to take notice. Slowly the child gains the power to form ideas out of sensations. These imperfect early notions grow more and more distinct, and the little one learns to use words as the signs of ideas. We usually find children under two years of age actively exploring the material world. But sense-perception does not seem to reach its greatest activity much before the fourteenth year. Between the ninth and fourteenth years this power seems to reach its full vigor. In boyhood and girlhood the sense-world fills the cup of joy to the brim. After that, sense-perception is kept vigorous by well-directed activity, but ceases to be the end of effort. It now becomes a means to higher ends.

Education of Sense-Perception.*-That we may master the outer world, we are endowed with sense-perception. The infant makes feeble efforts; the child becomes more and more capable; the boy masters in a good degree objective nature; the youth seeks to mas

* See “Education of Sense-Perception,” “Applied Psychology.”

ter and classify physical phenomena, and thus becomes familiar with physical sciences. Development expresses the change from the feeble infant to the masterly youth. Further on, this topic is discussed from the stand-point of the teacher. Here we examine it briefly from the stand-point of the student.

1. Hygienic conditions.* Mental achievement depends on the condition of the brain. Nothing is more certain. High success is impossible to individuals or to races having inferior brains. Physical elevation underlies mental elevation. Perfect health gives perfect sensations. Perfect sensations condition perfect sense-percepts. Perfect sense-percepts are the basis of clear and vigorous thinking and efficient acting. Obedience to hygienic laws is therefore imperative. Brain-culture underlies mind-culture.

2. Objective basis. All knowing begins with perceiving material objects. Words are signs of ideas already in the mind. "Blue" is empty sound to the blind boy; the idea "blue" is not in his mind. Attempts to understand words and definitions without ideas are about as successful as attempts to build railroads on clouds. Only through the senses do we get elementary ideas of the world around us. Words, spoken and written and remembered, represent these ideas. A firm foundation of sense-knowledge must underlie all mental achievement. Grasping this truth, modern education strives to build on the rock of sense-experience.

3. Objective teaching. "An appeal to children's own observation is now rightly resorted to as much as possible in every branch

* See Baldwin's "Art of School Management," p. 63.

+ Sully, "Outlines of Psychology."

of instruction. The teaching of natural science sets out with the object-lesson, which in its simplest form is a mere exercise of the pupils' observing powers in noting the properties of a thing. Whatever the difficulties of the object-lesson, nobody really doubts that a large amount of valuable knowledge about simple substances, as chalk and coal, natural forms, as those of plants and animals, as well as art-products, can be given to a number of children in this way. This first-hand knowledge of things through personal inspection is worth far more than any second-hand account of them by description. While the senses may thus be appealed to in almost any branch of instruction, they are far more concerned in some departments than in others. It is now generally admitted that the careful and thorough study of one or more of the natural sciences supplies the most efficient means of educating sense-perception."

Comparative Psychology. The life of the brute is distinctly one of sensation. Acuteness of sensation characterizes the brute, but in the proportion that their sensations are strong are their perceptions weak. Mr. Darwin says, "Sensations brutes have, but never ideas." Brutes lack language because they have nothing to say. The sense-impressions of the brute are associated and recalled; but can we properly call these impressions and re-impressions ideas? Does the brute so discriminate and assimilate as to gain clear-cut sense-percepts? We can not so think. The brute perceives, but its percepts are something lower than ideas.


Review.—In the mental economy, what is the office of attention of instinct of sensation? Give the distinction between sensorium and motorium. Define soul, psychology. Etc.

Give the meaning of sense-perception. What other names are applied to this faculty? Give the meaning of each name. Why is sense-perception preferred?

Give the meaning of sensation. Draw a picture of the auditory apparatus and explain auditory sensation. Are sensations the basis of all knowing?

Analyze two of your acts of sense-perception, giving the four facts you discover. Why are these called elements of sense-perception?

Define faculty. Are power, capability, and faculty synonyms? What is the office of sense-perception? How do sensation and senseperception differ? What do you call your ideas gained through sense-perception?

Name the three characteristics of sense-perception. What do you mean by characteristics? by intuitive? by concrete?

State and explain the author's definition of sense-perception; your definition; Sully's definition; McCosh's definition.

What do you mean by sense-percepts? Illustrate. Give and explain the two peculiarities of a sense-percept. Out of what do you make sense-percepts? Turn to diagram and cuts on pages 45, 46, 48, and show how we gain optic percepts, auditory percepts, and tactile percepts.

Give the distinction between a direct and an indirect sense-percept. What is understood by substitution? Place the diagram on the board and explain the mechanism and products of sense-perception.

Trace the growth of sense-perception. What does development express? Give hygienic conditions of sense-development. Tell about the objective basis. What does Sully say about objective teaching?

Which of the senses seem to involve all the others?

Which of the senses are active in the dark?

Do our senses, or our perceptions, give us complete ideas of things?

Are our senses reliable? State your arguments, pro or con. Does the child generally apply one or more senses to an object? Does he exercise the faculty of perception before coming to school?

Letter. You may now give your friend your ideas about senseperception. Try hard to make each point clear to him. Present the plain facts, as you understand them, and illustrate from your own experience.

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