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tration of studies the Herbartians give us directions for the formal teaching of individual lessons. In this five steps are taken following very closely the five steps used in developing a lesson by the method known to us as the inductive-deductive method. Lessons illustrating this point will be considered next month.


Professor E. R. Shaw, Dean of the School of Pedagogy, New York University, delivered at the High School, Montreal, the seventh lecture of the "Teachers' Lecture Course," his subject being "The New Idea of Correlation in Teaching and the Economy, Mentally and Socially, which it subserves. Dr. Shaw's lecture was illustrated by a large chart showing the curriculum of an ideal educational course as worked out in the schools with which he is connected. The scheme included seven years of school work. Only the first year's work in the three cases is referred to minutely in this paper. An outline of Dr. Shaw's address is given below.

-INTRODUCTION.-The idea of correlation came from Germany, having been introduced by students who came in contact with Herbart. It furnished a new factor to aid in the solution of a most perplexing problem--the crowding of new subjects into the course of study. This crowding was not due to specialists trying to make much of their particular subjects, but was an age impulse-the accnmulating pressure of preceding ages. The more complex the state of society becomes the greater the demand for more preparation. The more complex society demands greater diffusion of knowledge, forming an age impulse. The bicycle and liquified air are illustrations of increasing life complexity. The bicycle has opened up new industries. Who can tell the far reaching results that will follow the introduction of liquified air as a factor in mechanical problems. Who could have foretold the triumphs of electricity?

-THE MENTAL ECONOMY.-What is needed to fit the child for this ever increasing complexity of environment is a change in the method of presenting subjects by correlation, co-ordination, interrelation and concentration of subjects. The report of the "Committee of Fifteen" of the National Educational Association made clear the meaning

to be attached to these terms. Correlation was defined to be the selection of subjects to fit a child for his complex life. Concentration and co-ordination are ways of arranging the programme to bring about correlation. Interrelation is the term used to define cross relations in the scheme of correlation of duties. Following the plan of De Garmo, all school work was divided into three cores, branches, groups or orders, the humanistic, the scientific and the economic, arranged in order of age. Correlation and interrelation begin with the child's sensuous interests and expand to higher relationships. Humanistic studies are ethical and are the oldest embodying literature and history. Francis Bacon turned the attention of teachers and others to science and consol relations, and added accuracy to knowledge. The newest core of studies is the economical, the kind of knowledge that has perpetuated itself in nooks and corners, and has not as yet found its way into the schools. Each core of subjects was subdivided into two parts. The first was the material of study, e. g., the humanistic material comprising duties and relations as found in myths, fairy tales, biographical stories, poems, songs, hymns, pictures; the scientific material comprising the study of natural surroundings as land, water, sky, heavenly bodies, seasons, weather, animals, plants, minerals, geometric forms, color, the human body, physical forces and phenomena and pictures; the economic material comprising the study of the neighborhood in regard to food, clothing, shelter, industries, occupations, means of travel and pictures. The second subdivision of each core was entitled activities of arrangement and expression. Under humanistic activities were grouped, learning to read, oral and written language, oral and written spelling, games, diagrammatic drawing and physical culture. Under scientific activities were found number work, numbers 1 to 10 and counting to 200, the fractions, and, denominate numbers as foot, pint, quart, gallon; here also found place excursions, collections, descriptions, planting seeds, clay modelling, moulding, games, dominoes, direction, distance, measuring, music, singing scale of C, and physical culture. The economic activities embraced writing, tracing the outlines of animals and implements and cutting these from paper with scissors, paper folding, paper weaving, sewing, making articles of utility, color work with brush, clay modelling, games, buying and sell

ing. The material is an end in itself. The activities as learning to read, write, spell, etc., are not ends in themselves but are secondary or subordinate to material. Each core was well graded. The myths of the first year become literature in higher grades, the ethical stories of the earlier years become civics later on, the study of the neighborhood in the first years becomes industry and commerce in the seventh, land, water and sky change to physical and political geography, animals to zoology, plants to botany, form to inventional geometry, the human body to physiology, and so on. It is difficult to harmonize correlation with our old ideas, because some people are unable to think that knowledge can be given to pupils differently from the way in which they obtained it. Interrelation links studies together. This linking is only limited by the inventive power of the teacher. Interrelation seeks to make as great a number of associations as possible, so as to establish the right clues in the child's mind in some way. As many associations as possible should be secured by as much interrelation of subjects as can be made. This is the method for securing mental economy for the individual child. Each subject concerned is enriched by interrelation. Arithmetic and geometry may be related, algebra superseding arithmetic in the higher classes. Interrelation not only takes advantage of evident points of relation but seeks out new ones. The basis of interrelation is found in the motor activities, the hand, eye, etc. Gouin used this fact in teaching French but did not go far enough. A boy might as well be taught manual training with French and German as to open and shut doors, etc. This method of teaching a language would give breadth of vocabulary and variety of expression. Geography and history might be interrelated. (Dr. Shaw abridged Dana's "Two Years Before the Mast," a book of ethical and literary value, for this purpose.) The human interest forms the centre of interest. The child sees the value of latitude and longitude, the difference of time due to longitude, observes the rising and setting of the sun and other matters too numerous to mention. Formal reading may be interrelated with nature study. The subject taken up in the nature study should be the content of the reading lesson. Skill in reading is acquired most easily when the child is interested. Throughout the whole school course formal reading should be made subservient

to science, literature and other important subjects. Readers merely as readers are doomed. Interrelation effects an economy of time for the teacher.

-THE SOCIAL ECONOMY.-The highest office of the school is to reach the social consciousness and effect the diffusion of the good. Laws, customs, institutions and churches exert an uplifting influence. But the school having the attention of the child for so many hours a day must, by economy of teaching and learning, effect a saving of time towards this end. It will be accomplished largely through literature. The first dim ideas of duties to be done that have come to the child through the observance of home life and through the reading of myth, fairy tale and legend are to be made more definite by ever increasing extension and intention in literature, for the ideals of society find their highest expression there.

-LOVE is the beautiful soul of life.-Herbart.

—THE kindergarten has been of great value to the little child. But in its wake have followed some evils. It was bad enough to have the older children posing in public. The dear little tots of three, four and five-babies yetshould have their delights kept for the home. Let the little songs be reserved for the pleasure of father, mother, brothers and sisters, and let these and the games be the glad and spontaneous expression of the child's activity, not something self-consciously and grudgingly given to appease the idle curiosity of friends or strangers. Because the little children of our kindergartens are so sweet and engaging there is a tendency on the part of mothers and teachers to make exhibitions of them. This takes away the charming naturalness of the child by throwing its thoughts back upon self. Mrs. James, principal of the Cincinnati kindergarten training school, calls a halt in this regard. She says, "Do not expect much show in the best kindergartens. The true, earnest, faithful woman who gathers your children into a kindergarten every day is working for the 'one far off divine event,' the perfecting of a human soul. She has faith in the processes of eternal growth, and so she humbly plants the seed and shines upon it with never failing love and tenderness; but alas! many times as she plants, fathers and mothers dig up the seeds to see if they have sprouted."

-LIFE is a quarry, out of which we are to mould, chisel and complete a character.-Goethe.

-THE service that corporal punishment renders in the economy of the school, is worthy a few moments of consideration. A boy once remarked to his mother, "When I was a child you did not make me do what I disliked, and now I can't do anything unless I like it." Why didn't you make me?" This boy has suffered both materially and mentally-not to say morally-much more than he could possibly have suffered physically from a few applications of the strap. He feels that his natural indolence has become a habit from which he would like to break away; but he sees also that he has not the moral courage to make the effort. It looks as though many thousands of the children who now occupy the seats of our school-houses will be saying in years to come both to parents and teachers, "Why did you not make me?" They will find that their natural and acquired disabilities are preventing their getting on in the world. They see others outstripping them in the race of life largely because they had wiser parents and teachers. Many a teacher has been thanked most cordially in after years by boys, who have been turned back from a wrong course by a teacher, who took enough interest in them to give them a good application of the rod. It is a most unpleasant duty, but one that, on some occasions, it is cowardly for a teacher to shirk. Competition in all lines of work is becoming so keen that there is no place in the contest for children who have been coddled in the lap of luxury, brought up on soft, crimson-cushioned seats and fed on sweet-meats and other dainties. Let the truest and best interests of the child be considered.

-A MOST pernicious habit indulged in by some teachers is that of hinting the answers to questions, Sometimes the teacher "looks the thought she may not speak;" or, she gives questions that require only the answer yes or no. Let the child think for himself or show that he has not thought.

-WHAT an interesting exercise it is to trace words to their source. What is the origin of the word velvet? It comes from the Latin villus a shaggy hair. Plush is from the Latin pilus a hair, silk from the Latin sericus soft, linen comes from the Latin linum flax, through the Anglo-saxon, lace from the Latin laques a noose or snare, tapestry is

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