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before they were forgotten." The third mode of attention represented by the good spellers corresponded to good allround ability and the appreciation of facts as facts." The best natural speller perceived long words in two or more groups of letters (syllabication); none of the poor spellers having this habit. "Comparison of eye and ear series of tests brought out the fact that one of the poor spellers was an audile." "The tests for optical defects showed astigmatism in four of the poor spellers, short sight in one, normal vision in one only of the five."
Miss Wyckoff emphasizes the following points:
"1. Many constitutional bad spellers have defective sight; some defective hearing.
"2. The same causes that have operated to impair the sight or the hearing have frequently impaired the retentive power.
"3. Constitutional bad spelling may in part be the result of a strong natural bent towards selective attention.
"In such cases, where the syllable method of teaching might be especially ineffective, the mechanical memory would be helped by assisting attention in its selection. For example, above the word separate might be written, as an invitation to the eye, the syllable p-a-r.
"5. Apperceptive methods should be employed from the outset in the teaching of spelling. For the class of students just mentioned they are a necessity; for all they are an economy."
In this connection she gives this excellent suggestion:
"The children could use a set of cards, each containing a word so chosen as to furnish material for induction in the finding of root, prefix and suffix, and the meaning of each. Then, using these as tracers, they could notice in reading and blackboard exercise such new words as contained the familiar elements. The words separate, preparatory, and reparation could form the nucleus of such a group for the use of children old enough to understand their meaning."
"6. It might be well to devise some exercises for perfecting the automatic circuit (i. e., to train to write without thinking consciously of the spelling.) Possibly practice in writing with the hand concealed might be of service, use being made of selections that had been memorized."
In conclusion I cannot do better than quote the words of Dr. Rice:-" Although a liberal admixture of methods and
a judicious selection of words would be of material assistance, nothing can take the place of that personal power which distinguishes the successful from the unsuccessful teacher." "Methods and devices play only a subordinate part."
CORRELATION OF STUDIES OR THE NEW IDEA IN EDUCATION-(Continued.)
THE FIVE FORMAL STEPS OF INSTRUCTION.-Last month we considered the correlation of subjects in the school course to bring about assimilation or digestion of knowledge. We may now examine the five formal steps by which this end is reached in the case of individual lessons. In relation to the physical life, complete assimilation has taken place when the food, having been acted upon by many forces, at last finds its way into the blood and mixes with it. So when new knowledge finds its relation to previous knowledge in the mind, mental assimilation has taken place and the child has apperceived.
THE AIM OF THE LESSON.-The lessons of the day are divided up so as to devote half an hour or twenty minutes, as the case may be, to individual lessons in reading, history, spelling, writing, geography, etc., though in certain schools these subjects are all based upon the same topic. The Herbartians advocate giving to the child the aim of each lesson or group of lessons as an aid to definite knowledge. For instance the teacher might say, "We are going to learn all we can about bees to-day," or, "The lesson to-day is on nouns." The reason assigned, for presenting the aim of the lesson first, is that in this way the child prepares his own mind to some extent for the coming work, he shuts out irrelevant matter and brings on all that bears on the subject. This method is known to us as the topical method of teaching and is invaluable in teaching history and the higher branches of all school and college work. The aim of the lesson may be written on the black-board.
FIRST STEP. THE REVIEW ON PREPARATION FOR THE LESSON. This is to provide a friendly greeting for the new matter when presented. It is an invitation to all older ideas interested in the new comers to step forward and be arranged in an orderly manner so that the new material of thought may readily find its resting place in the mind.
Sometimes in a so-called review, matter not bearing on the subject to be presented is brought forward, or, though bearing directly on the subject is not well arranged. In these cases assimilation cannot be perfect.
SECOND STEP. PRESENTATION OF THE NEW LESSON.The material of the lesson should be presented in a logical orderly manner. Question and answer may be the form of presentation.
COMPARISON AND UNION OF IDEAS.The new ideas must be compared with one another and with older ideas, and resemblances and differences noted. What is common and necessary to all must be made to stand out prominently by repetition and little differences to sink into obscurity. The fourth step is made possible in this way.
FOURTH STEP. GENERALIZATION.-This is the severance of the abstract idea from the concrete things by which the abstract was reached. It is the formulation of general rules from the particular facts presented. The child should make his own generalization and frame his own rules, which will have an exact correspondence to his knowledge at the time, though they may not be as broad generalization as the text-books would give. The teacher must aid the child to put his generalizations into choice English. The fourth step must be clinched by repetition of the generalization or rule.
FIFTH STEP. APPLICATION OF KNOWLEDGE TO LIFE.Here the child passes from knowing to doing. The child is a social unit, he must use his knowledge for society. A LESSON IN ENGLISH GRAMMAR. AIM OF THE LESSON. -The aim of the lesson is to show how abverbs may be classified. (This is an elementary lesson.)
FIRST STEP. REVIEW.-The child has already classified in several ways nouns, verbs and adjectives. Recall to his mind that of the adjective by numerous examples. Question him upon the use of the adverb in the sentence through a series of examples. I talk. I talk quickly. You listen. You listen attentively. Joe is writing. Joe is writing rapidly. Jennie speaks. Jennie speaks politely. Time flies. Time flies swiftly. Next take sentences with adverbs, modifying adjectives or adverbs. Ask the children to suggest sentences containing adverbs. The teacher must be careful to eliminate non-essentials in the answers given,
without discouraging the suggestors. Unless he does so, when two complex sentences are given, he will find it impossible to concentrate attention upon the essential facts of the lesson.
SECOND STEP. PRESENTATION.-Sentences containing adverbs of manner, of place, of time and of degree may now be placed upon the board. (Adverbs of inference, sequence and argument may be taken up later on). Accompanying the sentences should be a series of questions drawing from the pupils the fundamental meaning of the adverb. He goes to-morrow. When does he go? To-morrow. He is coming soon. When is he coming? Soon. The bird soars upwards. Where does the bird soar? He reads correctly. In what manner does he read? The child may be asked to give sentences in imitation of the foregoing.
THIRD STEP. COMPARISON.-Compare to-morrow and soon, etc., as to difference of meaning, soon and to-morrow, etc., with upward, etc. Now place upon the board the four headings for classification as drawn from the answers, adverbs telling when, adverbs telling where, adverbs telling how, adverbs telling to what degree. Under the proper heading place each adverb that has been made use of, and ask for others of the same class so as to bring new words under the proper heading. Give many examples to bring out resemblances and differences. The adverbs all modify verbs, adjectives or other adverbs, but some tell when an action has been done, others where it has been done, while others again tell why it has been done, etc. Draw attention to the termination of adverbs of manner. These are formed from adjectives by adding ly, as bad, badly, and wise, wisely. The difference between adverbs and adjectives as to use and form may be noted.
FOURTH STEP. GENERALIZATION.-How many classes of adverbs are there? What are adverbs of manner? of degree? of time? of place? With what words do adverbs of manner usually go? adverbs of place? adverbs of degree? adverbs of time? Where is the adverb placed in the sentence? Other generalization may be drawn as determined by the lesson.
FIFTH STEP. APPLICATION.-Lists of adverbs for classification may be placed on the board. Pupils may add other adverbs. The words given should be put into sentences. The correct use of the adverb may be taught by writing
sentences in which the adverb is commonly misused, omitting the adverb, and having the children supply it in correct form. Quickly is supplied, not quick.
Practical Hints and Examination Papers.
-THE accompanying arithmetical problem, taken from St. Nicholas, will be found useful as a test in determining to what extent children are accustomed to present to their minds clear and vivid pictures of the essential factors of problems. Upon this will depend, to a great extent, their insight into the relations of numbers: "Once upon a time there were two old men who sat in the market early every morning and sold apples. Each one had thirty apples, and one of the old men sold two for a cent and the other old man sold three for a cent. In that way the first old man got fifteen cents for his basket of apples, while the second old man received ten cents; so that together they made twenty-five cents each day. But one day the old apple man who sold three for a cent was too sick to go to the market, and he asked his neighbor to take his apples and sell them for him. This the other old man very kindly consented to do, and when he got to the market with the two baskets of apples, he said to himself, "I will put all the apples in one basket, for it will be easier than picking them out of two baskets." So he put the sixty apples into one basket, and he said to himself, "Now, if I sell two apples for one cent, and my friend sells three for one cent, that is the same thing as selling five for two cents. Therefore I will sell five for two cents." When he had sold the sixty apples he found that he had only twenty-four cents, which was right; because there are twelve fives in sixty, and twice twelve are twenty-four. But if the old man had been there, and each one had sold his apples separately, they would have received twenty-five cents. Now, how is that explained? What is the incorrect statement in this pro
-THE question of variation in the length of day and night at different latitudes is a very important one and is somewhat difficult for the young teacher to handle successfully. A globe or large ball, with markings inserted when necessary, and a lamp or candle are very much better instruments at first than diagrams on the black-board, though