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A.C. 1491. Jacob, by the name of God Almighty, but by my name JEHOVAH was I not known to them 5.

4 And I have also established my covenant with them, to give them the land of Canaan, the land of their pilgrimage, wherein they were strangers.

5 And I have also heard the groaning of the children of Israel, whom the Egyptians keep in bondage; and I have remembered my covenant.

6 Wherefore say unto the children of Israel, I am the LORD, and I will bring you out from under the burdens of the Egyptians, and I will rid you out of their bondage, and I will redeem you with a stretched out arm, and with great judgments:

7 And I will take you to me for a people, and I will be to you a God and ye shall know that I am the LORD your God, which bringeth you out from under the burdens of the Egyptians.

8 And I will bring you in unto the land, concerning the Heb. lift up which I did swear to give it to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob; and I will give it you for an heritage: I am the LORD.

my hand.

9 And Moses spake so unto the children of Israel: but +Heb. short- they hearkened not unto Moses for † anguish of spirit, and for cruel bondage.

ness, or,


b Gen. xlvi. 9. 1 Chron. v. 3.

c 1 Chron. iv. 24.

10 And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying,

11 Go in, speak unto Pharaoh king of Egypt, that he let the children of Israel go out of his land.

12 And Moses spake before the LORD, saying, Behold, the children of Israel have not hearkened unto me; how then shall Pharaoh hear me, who am of uncircumcised lips?

13 And the LORD spake unto Moses and unto Aaron, and gave them a charge unto the children of Israel, and unto Pharaoh king of Egypt, to bring the children of Israel out of the land of Egypt.


14 These be the heads of their fathers' houses: The sons of Reuben the firstborn of Israel; Hanoch, and Pallu, Hezron, and Carmi: these be the families of Reuben.


15 And the sons of Simeon; Jemuel, and Jamin, and Ohad, and Jachin, and Zohar, and Shaul the son of a Canaanitish woman: these are the families of Simeon.

5 The general interpretation of this verse is; "I was known to the patriarchs, as a God all sufficient; having given them every blessing of which they stood in need; but I was not known by them as the observer of the promises, which had been so often made. I will now be known by the name Jehovah; as a God faithful to his promise: as such I will deliver my people Israel according to the promise which I made to their fathers."


16 And these are the names of the sons of Levi ac- A.C. 1491. cording to their generations; Gershon, and Kohath, and d Num. iii. 17. Merari: and the years of the life of Levi were an hundred 1 Chron. vi. 1. thirty and seven years.

17 The sons of Gershon; Libni, and Shimi, according to

their families.

57. 1 Chron.

18 And the sons of Kohath; Amram, and Izhar, and e Num. xxvi. Hebron, and Uzziel: and the years of the life of Kohath vi. 2. were an hundred thirty and three years.

19 And the sons of Merari; Mahali and Mushi: these are the families of Levi according to their generations.

Num. xxvi.

20 And Amram took him Jochebed his father's sister to f Chap. ii. 2. wife; and she bare him Aaron and Moses: and the years of 59. the life of Amram were an hundred and thirty and seven


21 ¶ And the sons of Izhar; Korah, and Nepheg, and Zithri.

22 And the sons of Uzziel; Mishael, and Elzaphan, and Zithri.

23 And Aaron took him Elisheba, daughter of Amminadab, sister of Naashon, to wife; and she bare him Nadab, and Abihu, Eleazar, and Ithamar.

24 And the sons of Korah; Assir, and Elkanah, and Abiasaph: these are the families of the Korhites.

25 And Eleazar Aaron's son took him one of the daugh

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ters of Putiel to wife; and she bare him Phinehas: these & Num. xxv. are the heads of the fathers of the Levites according to their families.

26 These are that Aaron and Moses, to whom the LORD said, Bring out the children of Israel from the land of Egypt according to their armies.

27 These are they which spake to Pharaoh king of Egypt, to bring out the children of Israel from Egypt: these are that Moses and Aaron.

28 And it came to pass on the day when the LORD spake unto Moses in the land of Egypt,

29 That the LORD spake unto Moses, saying, I am the LORD speak thou unto Pharaoh king of Egypt all that I say unto thee.

30 And Moses said before the LORD, Behold, I am of uncircumcised lips, and how shall Pharaoh hearken unto me?


1 Moses is encouraged to go to Pharaoh. 7 His age. 8 His rod is turned into a serpent. 11 The sorcerers do the like. 13 Pharaoh's heart is hardened.

1 And the LORD said unto Moses, See, I have made thee

A.C. 1491. a god to Pharaoh: and Aaron thy brother shall be thy prophet.

2 Thou shalt speak all that I command thee: and Aaron thy brother shall speak unto Pharaoh, that he send the children of Israel out of his land.

3 And I will harden Pharaoh's heart, and multiply my signs and my wonders in the land of Egypt.

4 But Pharaoh shall not hearken unto you, that I may lay my hand upon Egypt, and bring forth mine armies, and my people the children of Israel, out of the land of Egypt by great judgments.

5 And the Egyptians shall know that I am the LORD, when I stretch forth mine hand upon Egypt, and bring out the children of Israel from among them.

6 And Moses and Aaron did as the LORD commanded them, so did they.

7 And Moses was fourscore years old, and Aaron fourscore and three years old, when they spake unto Pharaoh. 8 ¶ And the LORD spake unto Moses and unto Aaron, saying,

9 When Pharaoh shall speak unto you, saying, Shew a miracle for you: then thou shalt say unto Aaron, Take thy rod, and cast it before Pharaoh, and it shall become a serpent.

10 And Moses and Aaron went in unto Pharaoh, and they did so as the LORD had commanded: and Aaron cast down his rod before Pharaoh, and before his servants, and it became a serpent.

11 Then Pharaoh also called the wise men and the sorcerers: now the magicians of Egypt, they also did in like manner with their enchantments.

12 For they cast down every man his rod, and they became serpents: but Aaron's rod swallowed up their rods. 13 And he hardened Pharaoh's heart, that he hearkened not unto them; as the LORD had said.



Infliction of the first eight Plagues.



AND the LORD said unto Moses, Pharaoh's heart is hardened, he refuseth to let the people go.

6 The manner in which the divine head of the Jewish Church appealed to the common sense of the Israelites against the idolatry of Egypt, is wonderfully ex

15 Get thee unto Pharaoh in the morning; ló, he goeth A.C. 1491. out unto the water; and thou shalt stand by the river's brink against he come; and the rod which was turned to a serpent shalt thou take in thine hand.

16 And thou shalt say unto him, The LORD God of the Hebrews hath sent me unto thee, saying, Let my people go, that they may serve me in the wilderness: and, behold, hitherto thou wouldest not hear.

17 Thus saith the LORD, In this thou shalt know that I am the LORD: behold, I will smite with the rod that is in mine hand upon the waters which are in the river, and they shall be turned to blood.

18 And the fish that is in the river shall die, and the river shall stink; and the Egyptians shall lothe to drink of the water of the river.

* Heb. ga

19 And the LORD spake unto Moses, Say unto Aaron, Take thy rod, and stretch out thine hand upon the waters of Egypt, upon their streams, upon their rivers, and upon their ponds, and upon all their * pools of water, that they may become blood; and that there may be blood throughout their waters. all the land of Egypt, both in vessels of wood, and in vessels of stone.

20 And Moses and Aaron did so, as the LORD command


ed; and he lifted up the rod, and smote the waters that h Ch. xvii. 5. were in the river, in the sight of Pharaoh, and in the sight of


his servants; and all the waters that were in the river were i Ps. lxxviii. turned to blood.

21 And the fish that was in the river died; and the river stank, and the Egyptians could not drink of the water of the river; and there was blood throughout all the land of Egypt.


22 And the magicians of Egypt did so with their chantments: and Pharaoh's heart was hardened, neither did he hearken unto them; as the LORD had said.

23 And Pharaoh turned and went into his house, neither did he set his heart to this also.

emplified in the history of the plagues of Egypt. The miracles of Moses had now arrested their attention, and their hopes of an early deliverance from their bondage must have been proportionably excited. Yet many of the Israelites were still followers of the surrounding idolatry, and the mercy of Providence displayed itself in proving to them the utter worthlessness of all the idols, and false gods, on whom the proud, the learned, and the scientific Egyptians, so vainly depended.

The first plague demonstrated the superiority of Jehovah over their imaginary river-gods; the Nile was turned into blood, which was an object of peculiar abhorrence to the Egyptians.

k Wisd xvii


A.C. 1491.

24 And all the Egyptians digged round about the river for water to drink; for they could not drink of the water of the river.

25 And seven days were fulfilled, after that the LORD had smitten the river.



1 And the LORD spake unto Moses, Go unto Pharaoh, and say unto him, Thus saith the LORD, Let my people go, that they may serve me.

2 And if thou refuse to let them go, behold, I will smite all thy borders with frogs:

3 And the river shall bring forth frogs abundantly, which shall go up go up and come into thine house, and into thy bedchamber, and upon thy bed, and into the house of thy servants, and upon thy people, and into thine ovens, and into *Or, dough, thy✶ kneadingtroughs:

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4 And the frogs shall come up both on thee, and upon thy people, and upon all thy servants.

5¶ And the LORD spake unto Moses, Say unto Aaron, Stretch forth thine hand with thy rod over the streams, over the rivers, and over the ponds, and cause frogs to come up upon the land of Egypt.

6 And Aaron stretched out his hand over the waters of Egypt; and the frogs came up, and covered the land of Egypt.

7 And the magicians did so with their enchantments, and brought up frogs upon the land of Egypt.

8¶Then Pharaoh called for Moses and Aaron, and said, Intreat the LORD, that he may take away the frogs from me, and from my people; and I will let the people go, that they may do sacrifice unto the LORD.

9 And Moses said unto Pharaoh, + Glory over me: when shall I intreat for thee, and for thy servants, and for thy people, § to destroy the frogs from thee and thy houses, that they may remain in the river only?

10 And he said, ||To morrow. And he said, Be it accord

The second effort of power on the part of Moses filled the holy river with frogs, and its streams by this means became a second time polluted, to the utter confusion both of their gods and priests. The land also was equally defiled, and they had no way to cleanse themselves, for every stream and every lake was in a state of pollution. The frog was held sacred by the Egyptians, and was regarded as an emblem of preservation in floods, and inundations.

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