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one;" for the Son is doubtless called ther we adore and expect felicity Alpha and Omega, &c. Again, the from him as God, or only respect apostle saw no temple" in the his memory as a good man? New Jerusalem, " for the Lord God V. Lastly, the language of auAlmighty and the Lamb are the thority, which we are certified that temple of it: and the city had no our future Judge will use at the need of the sun, neither of the moon, last day, should not pass unnoticed for the glory of God did lighten it, in this argument. As the happiand the Lamb was the light thereof" ness of heaven is represented under (xxi. 22, 23). He next saw a "pure the idea of entering into his joy, river of water of life proceeding out and beholding his glory, &c. (Luke of the throne of God and of the xii. 37; Matt. xxv. 21): so the Lamb,","-"neither was there any misery of the wicked is spoken of, more curse, but the throne of God, as a banishment from his presence, and of the Lamb, shall be in it, and and the endurance of his wrath. his servants shall serve him; and He will not say, "Depart from they shall see his face, and his name God," but Depart from me” shall be in their foreheads" (xxii. (Matt. xxv. 41; 2 Thess. i. 9, 10). 1-5). Can any thing be plainer, And in a figurative description of than that the writer of this book the great consternation of his enebelieved the Son was one with, and mies, in which is an evident referequal to the Father; the fountain ence to the day of judgment, they of light, life, purity, and felicity; in are introduced as calling on the whose presence is fulness of joy, rocks and mountains "to hide them and pleasures at his right hand for from the wrath of the Lamb; for evermore? (vii. 16, 17.) It is also the day of his great wrath is come, manifest, that the worship of heaven and who is able to abide it?" (Rev. is represented as a constant ascrip- vi. 16, 17). If then we believe that tion of praise and honour to Christ" he shall come to be our Judge," together with the Father: yet we it must be of the greatest importcannot sing on earth the very words ance that we know who he is, by of the heavenly choir, with appa, whom our eternal state is to be derent fervour, and unreserved ap- cided. For surely it will be very probation, without danger of being dreadful for those to meet him ardeemed enthusiasts; as is manifest rayed in glorious majesty, who, dufrom the care taken by many per- ring their whole lives, refused him sons to expunge every expression the honour he demanded, treated of this kind from their books of his declarations of his personal digpsalms and hymns for public wor- nity as false or unmeaning, and ship, as well as from their other continually uttered hard speeches services. Will there then be dis- against him! (Jude 14, 15; Rev. cordant companies of worshippers i. 7). If then the season of his in heaven? Or, if all must be har- coming be "the day of God" (2 monious, are we never to learn the Pet. iii. 12), it behoves every one song of the redeemed till we come of us to "prepare to meet our God," to heaven? Or how can we learn that we "may be found of him in this song, if we never come to a peace, without spot and blameless." settled determination in our minds, But to all these scriptural dewhether the Lamb that was slain monstrations of the truth and imbe worthy of all worship and honour, portance of this essential doctrine, or not? or if it be indifferent whe- some objections are opposed, which


are considered as insurmountable-yet our will moves our tongues and
a few of them shall here be very limbs continually; and we know
briefly noticed. It is objected, that not how: so that our own existence,
the Deity of Christ is inconsistent as well as that of God, must be
with the unity of God; or else, that denied, if we admit it not. Mys-
it is irrational, unintelligible, and teries are found in the production
contradictory. But doubtless some-of every plant and animal, yea, in
thing more than confident assertion the growth of every blade of grass,
is requisite to prove the doctrine of which philosophy can never explain.
the Trinity to be inconsistent with The style of God, in all his works,
the Divine Unity. The apostle is mystery; and shall we suppose
speaks of the body, soul, and spirit, that his own nature is not, above
as constituting the same individual all, mysterious! Experiment is al-
man (though some perhaps may lowed to be the proper standard of
object to his language); but if a our discoveries of the powers of na-
man may be three in one respect, ture: should not, then, the testimony
and one in another, do we know so of God concerning himself, termi-
much of God, as to assert it is im-nate our inquiries concerning his
possible that somewhat similar, but incomprehensible Essence?
far superior, and more entire, both can we "by searching find out God?
in the distinction, and in the unity, Can we find out the Almighty to
should take place in his incompre- perfection?" If men object Christ's
hensible nature? And ought not inferiority as Man and Mediator to
men to speak more reverently and the Father; or his growth in wis-
cautiously on a subject, about which dom and stature, &c.; we answer,
we know nothing more, than what that such testimonies, when com-
God himself hath taught us? Es-pared with those which ascribe om-
pecially, as so much is spoken in niscience, &c., to him, demonstrate
scripture, which appears to have that he had another nature, in union
this meaning, that the most of with his humanity, of which such
Christians in every age have thus things are spoken. And "his de-
understood it. We do not say, that livering up of the kingdom of God,
the Deity is Three and One in the even the Father" (1 Cor. xv. 24—
same sense; nor do we pretend to 28), only establishes the distinction
explain or comprehend how God between the absolute and everlast-
subsists in three Persons, the Fa-ing kingdom of God, as Creator; and
ther, the Son, and the Holy Ghost; the mediatorial kingdom of Christ,
but we would humbly believe his as the Divine Saviour of sinners.
testimony concerning himself, and As the absolute kingdom existed
adore his incomprehensible majesty. before sin entered, so will it exist
One would scarce have expected for ever, after the mediatorial king-
that the doctrine should have been dom hath answered its grand design,
objected to, because it is so myste- and is come to an end: but the Son
rious; when the apostle expressly will be One with the Father to
calls it the great mystery of godli-eternity, as he was in the begin-
ness. But indeed till we can com-ning, before time was, or creation
prehend ourselves, it is absurd to had taken place.

object to mysteries in those things If any person should be convinced,
which relate to the infinite God! by these plain arguments, of the
The power of mind over matter is truth and importance of this doc-
mysterious in the highest degree;trine, I would conclude with warn-

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ing him not to rest in the notion of in the affairs of men implies, that it; but to apply it practically, by some difference or ground of difrelying on Emmanuel for all things ference subsists between the two belonging to salvation, and by ren- parties; it supposes that, at least, dering him that love and honour one of them has cause of complaint which are due to his Name. The or resentment against the other; truth held in unrighteousness can and that consequences injurious to only increase a man's condemna- one, or both of them, or to those tion: but they, who deem it the connected with them, may be aplife of their souls, should endeavour prehended if the controversy be to adorn and promote the know- not amicably terminated. To preledge of it, by all suitable means: vent these effects, some person, remembering, that "the servant of either of his own accord, or at the the Lord must not strive, but be request and by the appointment of gentle to all men, in meekness, in- one or both the contending parties, structing them that oppose them- interposes: and endeavours by his selves; if peradventure God will authority, influence, or good offices, give them repentance to the ac- to effect a pacification on such terms knowledging of the truth; and that as are supposed to be equitable, or they may recover themselves out of the snare of the devil, who are taken captive by him at his will" (1 Tim. ii. 24-26.)


On the Nature and Design of the Mediatorial Office, sustained by the Lord Jesus Christ.

at least not materially injurious to either party: for if a Mediator should take great care of the rights and interests of one party, and evidently neglect those of the other, he would be justly condemned for acting contrary to the design and nature of his office. He should therefore act as the friend of both; accommodating their differences according to the justice of their claims, and in a manner as satisfactory to each of them, as can consist with equity and impartiality.

THE Mediation of Christ between a holy God and sinful men has an immediate connexion with every part of that religion which bears his In some cases a superior in staname: and all, who call themselves tion or power may assume the office Christians, should use great dili- of Mediator, and by authority ingence in seeking an accurate and duce the contending parties to acadequate knowledge of this inte- cept of the terms proposed to each resting subject, as far as they can of them. In others, the end may deduce it from the sacred scriptures. be accomplished by argument, reIt is, therefore, intended in this monstrance, or persuasion : and this essay to make some observations on is nothing more than convincing Mediation in general; to explain both parties, that they ought to the nature and ends of our Lord's make, or accept of, such concessions Mediation in particular;-to show for the sake of peace and their muin what respects he, and none else, tual good, as are equitable and reawas qualified to sustain such an sonable; and then inducing them office; and to prove from Scrip- to act according to the dictates of ture, that he is a Mediator, in the their understanding and conscience. sense that will be explained. But sometimes (especially when

The interposition of a Mediator one party is much inferior to the

other, and hath been highly crimi- different character, and in no respect
nal or injurious), the office of a Me- entitled to, or possessed of, the
diator will chiefly consist, in pre-affection or confidence of the prince,
vailing with the offended superior attempt such an interposition, with-
to accept of such concessions and out manifest impropriety. If a com-
satisfaction as the other can make, pany of men, in any such circum-
and not to proceed against him with stances, were desirous of thus con-
rigour, though he deserve it: and ciliating the favour of their offended
if this can be effected, it only re-lord, they would naturally turn their
mains for him to prevail with the thoughts to one of his chief nobles,
inferior, or criminal party, to make to some person that had performed
the required concessions, &c. It signal services with great renown;
may, however, so happen, on some or to his principal favourite (Acts
occasions, that the Mediator, out of xii. 20); or even to his beloved
great love and pity to the offender, Son, if they had any prospect or
may offer to make compensation at hope of obtaining his good offices.
his own expense, for the injuries he And if such a Mediator could be en-
hath done; in order that the other gaged in their behalf, with so firm
party may without loss or disho- and cordial an attachment to their
nour lay aside his purposes of in-cause as to say with Paul, when he
flicting deserved punishment upon mediated with Philemon for Onesi-
him. Various qualifications would mus, "if they have wronged thee,
be requisite for persons who should or owe thee aught, put that on mine
sustain the office of a Mediator be- account;-I will repay it," (Phil.
tween two parties at variance, in 19, 20); and if he really were com-
any of the cases which have been petent to make good such an en-
stated: but our attention should gagement; then his interposition
principally be fixed upon the last, would have its utmost advantage
as it doubtless most accords to the for success.
interesting subject which it is in- But no Mediator can be fully au-
tended to illustrate. Should any thorized for his office, unless, by
one interpose between a sovereign one means or other, both parties
prince and his rebellious subjects, allow of his interference; at least
in order to prevail with him to show his mediation cannot have its due
them mercy, it is obvious that he effect, till they both accede to his
should himself be free from all sus- terms or plan of accommodating
picion of the least favouring their their differences. For if one party
rebellion; otherwise his interposi-authorize him to propose certain
tion would render him the more terms to the other, as the utmost
suspected. He ought, moreover, that he will yield; the whole must
to be a person of that rank and cha- yet be frustrated, and the dissension
racter, or to have done those im- perpetuated, if these terms be per-
portant services, which entitle him tinaciously rejected; except when
to the confidence of his sovereign, the Mediator acts also as an umpire,
and tend to render it honourable for and compels the parties to accept
him, at his instance, to pardon those of his prescribed conditions. There
that deserve punishment. Every is also an evident propriety in a
one must perceive the absurdity of Mediator's standing in such a rela-
a criminal undertaking to mediate tion to each of the parties, as to lay
in behalf of his associates in guilt; a foundation for his being consi-
nor could an obscure person, of in-dered as an equal friend to both of

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them, in all respects in which their posed to his just indignation, no rerank or the justice of the cause will conciliation, and consequently no admit of it; so that there can be no peacemaker could have been rereason to suspect, that a person, quired. The angels in heaven apthus situated, will sacrifice the in- proach their God and Father withterests or rights of one party, from out the intervention of a Mediator; a partial regard to the other. and so doubtless did man, before sin

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These observations concerning had made a breach between God the office of a Mediator, as well and him. When the first Adam known among men, may enable us had broken the commandment, and to understand more clearly the doc-forfeited the covenant of his Creator; trine of scripture respecting the and so sin and death had entered Mediatorial Office of Emmanuel: into the world, to pass upon the and we may very properly argue whole race that was about to defrom them, in something of the scend from him; then was "the same manner that Paul did from second Adam, the Lord from heathe office of high-priest among ven," promised, to be the Mediator the Jews, when he wrote to them of a new covenant, under the title concerning the high-priesthood of of the seed of the woman, who Christ. This, indeed, was a di- should bruise the serpent's head." vinely-appointed type and shadow Thus the entrance of sin gave rise of the subject that the apostle illus- to the whole plan of a Mediator; trated and confirmed by it; whereas and the malignity or desert of sin our arguments, from the office of a alone required such an exalted MeMediator among men, derive their diator, and such a meritorious meforce from analogy, or the particu- diation, as the scripture reveals and lars in which the cases coincide: proposes to us. For if a righteous yet as the Lord himself has repre- and holy God had not viewed sin sented the office of Christ under the as so evil in its nature and effects, idea of a Mediator, it is manifest that it would be utterly inconsistent that he intended to assist, and not with his glory to show mercy to to mislead or confuse our apprehen- transgressors, unless some constisions, by this allusion; and this au- tution of this kind were previously thorizes us to make what use we formed; that love, which provided can, with caution and sobriety, of the Mediator, would have sufficed the case alluded to, in order to (so to speak) to induce him to parexplain more clearly the subject don them without one. We must which is illustrated by it. not, therefore, imagine, that the We must, therefore, in the next Mediation of Christ is needful, in place, reflect on the need there was order to prevail with God to pity, for "a Mediator between God and love, and save sinners: on the conman." Had the human species trary, we should consider it as the never forfeited the favour, or in- grand effect of his compassion and curred the displeasure of their good will, and as intended to render bountiful Creator, a Mediator could the exercise of his plenteous mercy never have been wanted, for he was consistent with the honour of his of himself sufficiently disposed to justice, and conducive to the harfavour and bless the work of his monious display of all his perfecown hands. Had not man been tions. brought into a state of alienation

Men had forfeited their Creator's from God, and had he not been ex-favour, and deserved his anger, by

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