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or writing about them, whilst they are addressed, and "he hears gladly, remain ungodly: even as others and does many things," though he have possessed miraculous or pro- will not divorce Herodias: or conphetical gifts, whilst they continued vincing arguments are applied with the slaves of avarice or lust. Thus energy to an intelligent worldling, persons may arise, endued with and he is almost persuaded to be a eminent talents, whose preaching Christian. Such characters often may excite great attention, and take up a profession of the gospel, even do much good; or whose and continue for a time, or even writings illuminate the church, and persist to the end, in an unfruitful exceedingly tend to elucidate the form of godliness: and men of this truth, and to silence the objections description, when the Spirit has of its enemies; and yet these very finally ceased to strive with them, men may possibly be themselves have been the principal heresiarchs cast-aways, because they "received in every age, while the bulk of henot the love of the truth, neither retical societies have been constiobeyed it, but obeyed unrighteous-tuted of inferior persons of the same ness. But these are spiritual gifts, stamp. Yet, as far as truth prowhich are wanted alike at all times; duces its proper effect, though it unless it can be believed that men be at length borne down by human are now so wise and good, and that depravity and temptation, it ought Christianity is so congenial to our to be ascribed to the Spirit; and in nature, and so generally understood this sense, as well as in respect of and practised; that we are fully miraculous powers, men have been competent, without any divine as- partakers of the Holy Ghost, and sistance, to maintain the cause of it have yet fallen away beyond the in the world. possibility of being renewed unto It has also been generally allowed repentance (Heb. vi. 4—6; x. 29). by orthodox divines, that there are But, on the other hand, these other influences of the Spirit on the strivings are often preparatory to mind, which do not always issue in those " things which accompany its sanctification. "To resist the salvation;" nor can we always exHoly Ghost," seems to mean some-actly distinguish between them, exthing more than merely to reject cept by the effect: for they rethe word of inspiration: and to semble two small seeds, which are "quench the Spirit," is not exclu- so much alike, though of distinct sively the sin of believers, when on species, that our eyes cannot dissome occasions they stifle his holy tinguish between them; till, having suggestions. He strives with, and been sown, they spring up and propowerfully stirs up the minds of duce their respective plants, and many, who are not born again: new then they are easily and perfectly principles are not implanted, but known from each other.

natural powers are excited; con- The observations that have been science is influenced in part to per-made on regeneration (Essay XII.) form its office, notwithstanding the introduce what is needful to be opposition of the carnal heart; con- added in this place, in respect to vincing views are given of many the special work and influences of important truths; the Spirit concurs the Holy Spirit in the hearts of bewith an address to a man's fear, and lievers. We may therefore observe, even Felix trembles before a pri- that the conversion of three thousoner in chains. A man's hopes sand persons on the day of Pente

cost, the rapid spread of the gospel tenor of revelation manifests to which followed, and the holiness them, that the prince of this world, and joy of the primitive Christians, and all his subjects, lie under cerwere as much the effect of that tain condemnation. When the "out-pouring of the Spirit," as the Holy Spirit has thus prepared the miraculous gifts conferred on the hearts of sinners (as he did those of apostles; and the same change the Jews on the day of Pentecost, wrought in men's characters and Acts, ii. 37), "he glorifies Christ, conduct by the gospel, must uni- and receives of the things of Christ, formly be ascribed to the same and shows unto them" (John, xvi. 7-15). By his illuminating energy,


But we shall be able to mark by divesting the mind of proud and more precisely the nature of these carnal prejudices, and by bringing sanctifying influences of the Spirit, the words of Scripture to their reby adverting to the language of membrance, he discovers to them Scripture on that subject. The the glory and excellence of Emmaword "Comforter," by which our nuel's person, his infinite compasLord distinguishes this divine sion and condescension, the perAgent, may also signify an advo- fection of his righteousness, the cate, or an admonisher; and this preciousness of his blood, the pretitle implies, that it is his office to valence of his intercession, and the plead the cause of God in our suitableness of his whole salvation. hearts, to excite and animate us to In proportion therefore as the sinall holy duties, and to communicate ner is abased and humbled in his to us all holy consolations. Water, own eyes, Christ becomes precious which purifies, refreshes, and fruc- in his estimation; the Comforter tifies all nature; and fire, which il- exalts him in his heart; he perluminates, penetrates, melts, softens, ceives him to be" altogether lovely," and consumes whatever cannot be," the pearl of great price," and that as it were, changed into its own na- all things are but loss in comparison ture, are the constant emblems of of him. Now he begins to see somethat Spirit with which Christ bap- thing of his unsearchable riches, his tizes his true disciples. When he unfathomable love, his inexhaustible comes," he reproves," or "convinces fulness; he finds that all he can men of sin, of righteousness, and of want is comprised in a relation to, judgment;" by his divine light he and interest in Christ, and in union so discovers to them their obligations and communion with him. His to God, and the demands of his per- liberty, honour, pleasure, and fefect law, that they are deeply con-licity consist in having such a Savinced of guilt, even in such things viour, brother, and friend; and as before did not burden their con- those strains of admiring love, desciences; especially, they soon per- sire, gratitude, and praise, which ceive their state of condemnation as once appeared to him too rapturous, unbelievers, and the atrocious evil or even enthusiastic, become the of not receiving Christ by faith: genuine language of his most lively they are thus convinced of the jus- hours, and he knows that they are tice of God in his dealings with all far beneath his real excellency sinners, and understand his righte- and glory: thus the love of Christ ousness in justifying believers; and to him, and his reciprocal love to so are brought to realize habitually Christ, constrain him to live to his a judgment to come, as the whole glory. And here we may observe,

that in proportion as the doctrine and whether we understand this of of the Spirit is exploded or over- our knowledge of God's love to us, looked, the person and work of or of our exercise of love to him, it Christ are generally dishonoured; is manifest that we cannot attain to and whilst men plume themselves it, except by the influences of the on a rational religion, they evidence, Spirit, preparing and pervading all and sometimes must be conscious, the faculties of our souls (Rom. v. that the language of Scripture does 5); and indeed all fervent affecnot suit their views, but far better tions towards God, or joy in him, accords to those of the enthusiasts, are deemed enthusiasm by those whom they so liberally vilify and who deny these doctrines; and a cordially despise. Is it not then decent conduct, with a form of godevident, that the reason why Christ liness, constitutes the sum total of is no more glorified in the visible improved Christianity. The same church, is simply this: men do not apostle prays, that the Romans expect, depend on, or seek for the" may abound in hope by the power influences of the Holy Spirit in this of the Holy Ghost" (Rom. xv. 17). respect; and therefore they are left Hope is one of those graces which to exalt themselves, or philosophy, abides in the church (1 Cor. xiii. or some favourite author, and to 13); and if this springs from, and degrade the light of the world and abounds through the power of the the life of men? Spirit, we must conclude, that all Several of the apostle's prayers who are destitute of his influences for his converts had respect, not to are either "without hope," or buoymiraculous gifts, but to such things ed up in presumptuous confidence. as are equally needful in every age. According to St. Peter, the beHe desired, "that the Spirit of liever's obedience results from "the wisdom and revelation might en- sanctification of the Spirit." And he lighten their understandings to says, "Seeing ye have purified your know God and the glory of his gos- souls in obeying the truth through pel, and cause them to experience the Spirit, unto unfeigned love of the power of his grace," &c. (Eph. the brethren," &c. (1 Pet. i. 2, 22). i. 17-19; iii. 16-21; 1 Cor. ii. Surely these are duties of Chris12; 2 Cor. iv. 3-6). Now, is it tianity peculiar to no age or place; not necessary that all Christians and the influences of the Spirit must should thus know God, understand be as needful to the performance of the gospel and its privileges, and them at present, as when inspired be inwardly strengthened in love apostles were the teachers of the and obedience to the Lord Jesus? church. "The kingdom of God Surely these are essentials to real is-in righteousness, peace, and Christianity in every age. And the joy in the Holy Ghost" (Rom. xiv. state of the professing church of 17): how then can we rejoice in Christ, amidst all modern improve- the Lord always, without his blessments, shows that they can no more ed influences? But this subject is be produced without the influences most copiously discussed in the of the Spirit, than skill in agricul- eighth of Romans, which brevity ture can insure a crop of corn, with- forbids me to enlarge upon. Let out the influences of the sun and it suffice in general to observe, that rain. The apostle says, "that the the apostle ascribes the believer's love of God is shed abroad by the deliverance from "the law of sin Holy Ghost, who is given unto us ;" and death," to "the Spirit of life

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in Christ Jesus" (2 Cor. iii. 17, 18);|of it, are constantly ascribed to his and derives the spiritual mind, which influences; nor can we escape fatal "is life and peace," from the same delusions, resist temptations, oversource. They in whom " the Spirit come the world, or glorify God, of God dwells," are "not in the except as we are taught, sanctified, flesh, but in the Spirit;" but "if strengthened, and comforted by the any man have not the Spirit of Holy Spirit, who dwells in beChrist, he is none of his :" they, lievers," as a well of water springwho " through the Spirit mortify ing up unto everlasting life." the deeds of the body, shall live;" We need not then wonder at the they "that are led," or willingly low ebb to which vital Christianity guided and influenced by him, "are is fallen, when we consider how the children of God." He dwells many nominal Christians utterly in them, not as a "spirit of bond-disclaim all dependence on the Spiage," to induce them to obey God rit as enthusiasm ; and how much from servile motives, but as a Spirit this part of the gospel is overlooked of adoption, by whom they cry, by numbers who are zealous for 'Abba, Father" and thus, by pro- other doctrines of it! The subject ducing filial dispositions and affec- therefore suggests to us the vast tions in their hearts, he witnesses importance of owning the divine with them, that they are the chil-person and whole work of the Spirit dren and heirs of God. They have in all our services; of praying for, therefore, "the first-fruits of the that we may pray by the Spirit Spirit," called elsewhere, the "seal (Luke, xi. 13); of applying for of the Spirit," being the renewal of and depending on him in all things; the Divine image on their souls, of cautiously distinguishing his geand the "earnest of the Spirit," or nuine influences from every counthe beginning and sure pledge of terfeit, by Scriptural rules; of heavenly felicity (2 Cor. i. 22; avoiding those worldly cares, and Eph. i. 13, 14; iv. 30). But who that indolence, which " quench," can deny that these things are essen- and all those evil tempers, which tial to genuine Christianity at all" grieve the Spirit of God;" and of times, and in all places? In short, giving the glory of all the good we are directed to pray in," or wrought in or by us, to him, as the by "the Holy Ghost," who "also original source and author of it. helpeth our infirmities;" and what- Thus, depending on the mercy of ever words we use, his influences the Father, the atonement of the alone can render our worship spi- Son, and the grace of the Spirit, we ritual. Our holy tempers, affec- shall be prepared to give glory to tions, and actions are called "the the Triune God our Saviour, both fruits of the Spirit" (Gal. v. 22, 23; now and for evermore. Eph. v. 9), to distinguish them

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from mere moral conduct, on worldly or legal principles. We are said


"to live, and to walk in, and to On the Uses of the moral Law, in subbe filled with the Spirit;" and all our heavenly wisdom, knowledge, serviency to the Gospel of Christ. strength, holiness, joy; all things WHEN we have duly considered our relative to our repentance, faith, situation as fallen creatures, and hope, love, worship, obedience, those things that relate to our remeetness for heaven, and foretastes covery by the mercy of the Father,

the redemption of the Son, and the "admiration, gratitude, credit, adosanctification of the Holy Spirit, we ration, submission, and obedience, must perceive, that "we are saved as the law had represented him to by grace, through faith; and that be; or without seeming to allow, not of ourselves, it is the gift of that man had at length ceased to God; not of works, lest any man be under those obligations to God, should boast" (Eph. ii. 8-10). or to stand in those relations to And we shall next be led to inquire, him, and to his neighbour, whence "wherefore, then, serveth the law?" the requirements of the law at first (Gal. iii. 19.) Indeed, the apostle resulted. The moral law, I say, introduces this question as the ob- could not be changed in any essenjection of a Judaizing teacher to tial point, unless we could cease to the doctrines of grace. But, in be under infinite obligations to our stating the uses of the law as co- great Creator; unless he could allow incident with the doctrines before us in some degree to be alienated mentioned, it is obvious, that neither from, and become despisers of him; the ritual law nor the legal dispen- or to love worldly objects and our sation are intended; the former own temporal advantage or pleatypified, and the latter introduced, sure, more than his infinite excelthe clear revelation of the gospel, lency, and to prefer them to his and they were both superseded and glory, and the enjoyment of his antiquated by the coming of Christ. favour; unless he could allow us to The moral law alone is intended, be ungrateful for his benefits, to which was originally written in the discredit his veracity, to dispute heart of man, as created in the image his authority, to reject the appointof God; was afterwards delivered ments of his wisdom; and to injure, with awful solemnity from Mount neglect, corrupt, or hate one another, Sinai in ten commandments; is else- to the confusion and ruin of his fair where summed up in the two great creation. Such absurd and dreadful commandments of loving God with consequences may unanswerably be all our hearts, and our neighbour as deduced, from the supposition of ourselves: and is explained and en- the moral law of God being repealed larged upon in a great variety of or altered; and they are the bane particular precepts throughout the of every Antinomian or Neonowhole Scripture. This law, besides mian invention, however ingeniously what it more directly enjoins, im-stated or diversified. The Lord plicitly requires us to love, admire, may, consistent with the immutable and adore every discovery that God perfections of his nature and righ shall please at any time to make to teousness of his government, reveal us of his glorious perfections; cor- truths before unknown to his creadially to believe every truth he tures; he may abrogate positive shall reveal and authenticate; and institutions, or appoint others; he willingly to obey every positive ap- may arrange various circumstances pointment which he shall at any relative to the law, in a new mantime be pleased to institute. ner, according to the different situThis law is immutable in its own ations in which rational agents are nature; for it could not be abro-placed: but the love of God with gated, or altered, without an appa- all the powers of the soul and the rent intimation, that God was not equal love of each other, must conso glorious, lovely, and excellent; tinue the indispensable duty of all or so worthy of all possible honour, reasonable creatures, however cir

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