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passions, advancing worldly inte- they are produced by the seed of rests, or rendering a man conspicu- Divine truth, and received into the ous amongst his neighbours; and heart by living faith, we shall somesensible men observing this, imbibe times be led to deduce coincident strong and fatal prejudices against parts of them from different princithe truth through the manifest mis-ples: and, therefore, some things conduct of such advocates for it. which were touched upon in the I 3. Even the smallest degree, in former part of this Essay, may be which the doctrines of the gospel here again resumed in another conoperate as principles transforming nexion. This will especially be the soul into their holy nature, suf-perceived in relation to that subject, fices to prove them to be received with which I shall introduce what with a measure of living faith: yet belongs to the temper of a Christian the Lord hath so arranged his plan, towards his brethren and neighthat various circumstances concur bours, viz. in preventing the believer from de- I. Indifference to the world, and riving a strong Scriptural assurance, the things of the world, (1 John ii. from a feeble effect of truth upon his 15-17). Patience, contentment, mind. But in proportion as our gratitude, and cheerfulness, have principles induce us habitually to been shown to be the genuine effect "exercise ourselves unto godli- of that confidence in God and subness," the certainty of the change mission to his will, which arise from becomes evident; our faith is proved a real belief of the doctrines conto be living, and to work by love; tained in the Holy Scriptures; but and the Spirit of adoption witnesses they receive a collateral support with our spirits, that we are the also, from those views that the, children of God: yet this generally Christian has of the vanity of all connects with deep humiliation, in earthly things, and the importance respect of the small degree in which of eternity; whilst these, again, are we are sanctified. essential to a proper frame of mind Finally, our rule is perfect, and and tenor of conduct towards our grace teaches us to aim at perfec- neighbours. For what is most protion: but we are still in a state of ductive of immorality and mischief warfare and imperfection, in which among mankind? Does not an in"repentance towards God, and faith ordinate eagerness in the pursuit of in our Lord Jesus Christ," will con-worldly objects occasion a vast protinue to be necessary. Blessed, portion of the crimes and miseries then, are they, who hunger and thirst after righteousness, for they, and they only, shall be eternally satisfied.

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that fill the earth? This has not only led men idolatrously to forsake, and wilfully to rebel against God, but it has also prompted them to become the oppressors and murderers of each other, in every age and nation, and thus to fill the earth with "lamentation, and mourning, peculiar to the true Believer. and woe!" Nor can it reasonably be expected, that any effectual re(In Continuation of the preceding Essay.) medy can be applied to these evils, In stating with brevity, yet with unless men can be generally conprecision, the peculiarities of the vinced that the objects of their Christian temper and character, as fierce contentions are mere vanity

On the Dispositions and Character

and vexation of spirit, and that no- us such a view of the deplorable conbler blessings are attainable. This dition into which sin hath plunged has been so obvious to men of any our species, and of the hopeless mireflection, that many sects of philo-sery to which the most prosperous sophers and the inventors of various ungodly man is every moment exsuperstitions, have manifestly pro- posed, as must tend to lower all posed the same end in this respect earthly distinctions in the believer's as Christianity does; but their estimation, and to break the fatal means have been so injudicious and association in his mind between the inadequate, that they have only idea of happiness and that of worldly taught men to sacrifice one lust to prosperity; for he cannot but see, another, and to deny sensuality or that a confluence of all earthly comavarice, that they might more ad- forts avails not to preserve the vantageously gratify the lust of do- possessor from death and hell, nor minion, or the thirst for the applause keep out the dread of them. That of men. But when the apostle near view, also, which faith pre"determined to glory in the cross sents to the mind, of the reality and of Christ alone," he found, "that speedy approach of an eternal and the world was by it crucified to unchangeable state, cannot but damp him," and that "he was crucified his ardour, and abate his assiduity to the world," (Gal. vi. 14). The in pursuing those things, which world, and every thing in it, even must so soon be left for ever; whilst "the lust of the flesh, the lust of the substantial possessions, the inthe eye, and the pride of life," and corruptible honours, and the unalwhatever was suited to gratify the loyed pleasures which are proposed appetites, the senses, the avarice, to his hope, tend to draw off his the ambition, or vainglory of man, affections from the things "on the seemed to him no more attractive earth, and to fix them on things than the distorted, defiled counte-above, where Christ sitteth on the nance of a crucified malefactor; and right hand of God" (2 Cor. iv. 18; he was also entirely willing to be Col. iii. 1-4). For as the earth looked upon by all worldly men appears to us who live on its surwith that contempt, pity, or aversion, face, to be made very unequal by which such an object is suited to the mountains that are upon it, yet inspire. Indeed, the doctrines that could we rise above it, and view relate to the incarnation of Christ; these at a distance, such inequalities the birth of Emmanuel in a stable; would appear inconsiderable, comhis obscure education and life of pared with the magnitude of the labour till he entered on his public globe; and, as we looked down ministry; his subsequent poverty, upon it from a still greater distance, hardship, reproach, and suffering, they would entirely vanish from till he expired a sinless sacrifice on our sight: so, to the carnal mind, the cross; together with the cir- the difference between rich and cumstances of his followers, and poor, prince and beggar, &c., seems the treatment they met with, are immense; but, in proportion as our directly suited to mortify every cor- judgment and affections become rupt affection of the human heart, spiritual, the disparity diminishes, and to create an indifference about till the distinction seems entirely to all those objects which unbelievers disappear. As all are sinners and idolize. The doctrine of the cross, mortals, all must stand before the when spiritually understood, gives impartial tribunal of God; all are

under condemnation according to His duty may also call him to fill the law; all are invited to accept of up a superior situation in society, the salvation of the gospel; and all and to possess authority or wealth, must be eternally happy or miser- as the steward of God for the good able, as they are found in the com- of others, or he may be engaged in pany of believers or of unbelievers. any lawful business: but his prinSo that indifference to the world ciples will prevent him from loving and its honours, friendship, wealth, the world, and teach him moderadecorations, pomp, splendour, and tion, both in the pursuit of appaindulgences, whether of the senses, rent advantages, and in the use of the appetites, or the passions of the his possessions; they will dispose mind, is the genuine result of evan- him to abstain from many things gelical principles; and it is uni- which others in similar situations formly proportioned to the degree seize upon, or indulge in; to shun in which we are really influenced what others deem desirable; and by them; so that every tendency to to consider the concessions which covetousness, ambition, vainglory, he makes to the customs of society dissatisfaction with mean or pre- rather as a cross than as a satisfaccarious provision, or the desire of tion. The principles of revelation, things more ornamental, elegant, indeed, are far from confounding fashionable, or indulgent, than those the different ranks and orders in which Providence hath allotted to the community: nor do they counus, is a proof that we are not fully tenance self-invented austerities, or cast into the mould of the truths a morose rejection of the rational which we profess. A Christian is comforts and satisfactions of life: a stranger and a pilgrim upon earth; for "the Lord hath given us all he wants accommodation during his things richly to enjoy:" but they abode in this foreign land, and his teach us to be satisfied with such journey to his heavenly home; he things as we have, if we have cannot but prefer things pleasant to merely "food and raiment," though those that are painful; yet this is the meanest and most scanty; to not his object, nor can he consistently refrain from every thing inexpediloiter, turn aside, or disquiet him-ent, as well as from whatever is self about such matters: much less unlawful and not to put any intercan he seek great things by diso-est or indulgence in competition, beying his Lord, clouding his pros-even with the peace and comfort of pects, disgracing his character, or our weakest brother; they instruct interrupting his comforts. His prin- us not to consider any earthly disciples will indeed show him, that tinction as our riches, adorning, there is a place assigned to him, honour, or pleasure; to use all and that perhaps he cannot fill this things as strangers that are about to place with propriety, without many leave them; to do all as the Lord's externals which are of little value, servants, and to improve all our and which many of his brethren advantages as his stewards: and have not; but he cannot consistently" whether we eat or drink, or whatglory or rejoice in them, or prefer ever we do, to do all to the glory of himself to others on that account; God." Whenever these ends renay, he will rather deem them quire it, we are called upon to deny snares and incumbrances, which ourselves, to forsake all, to act as may retard his course, and induce if we hated our dearest relatives, to him to conformity to the world. part with every earthly possession,


to take up our cross, and even lay poverty; all our reluctance to leave down our lives for the sake of him our children to earn their bread by who died for us and rose again; menial labour, if the Lord be who hath expressly declared, that pleased so to appoint it and a without this disposition, purpose, great many other things which we and conduct, we cannot be his dis- witness around us, and may be conciples; and hath given motives and scious of in ourselves, are manifest assurances sufficient to encourage deviations from the Spirit of Chrisus to make all these sacrifices with tianity, inconsistent with the princheerfulness (Matt. xvi. 24-26; ciples of the gospel, and productive xix. 29; Luke xiv. 25–33; 1 Cor. of many evil consequences. It does viii. 12, 13; x. 31 ; Heb. xiii. 5, 6). not indeed follow, that such persons He hath moreover taught us "to as manifest a degree of these carnal seek first the kingdom of God and propensities are insincere in their his righteousness;" hath assured profession, but it proves, that they us, "that all things needful shall have but partially understood the be added to us;" and hath given us tendency, and experienced the effia warrant to trust him in the path cacy of the truth. And if any who of duty, both in respect of ourselves, contend for evangelical doctrines, and of all that belong to us. are wholly strangers to this "cru

Moreover, our principles teach cifixion to the world," and treat us to consider this world as a bar- such subjects as low and legal, ren land and a scene of trouble, without doubt their faith is dead, and to expect no rest in it; to take and their hope presumptuous: for matters as we find them (except as all true Christians lament and the duty of our station may be con- mourn, that they are no more morcerned); and not to be anxious tified to the world, and indifferent about our condition, though we be about its perishing trifles. poor, or even slaves, because "the II. Benevolence, or philanthropy, fashion of this world passeth away," is an eminent branch of the Christian (1 Cor. vii. 21-23; 29-31). temper. The law of "loving our All discontent, therefore, in obscure neighbour as ourselves," is written and indigent circumstances, as well in the heart of every regenerate as insolence in prosperity; all envy person, and it is constantly referred of the rich or renowned; all covet- to in the New Testament, as the ing or hankering after somewhat believer's rule of conduct towards greater, easier, or more abundant; all men; our Lord has beautifully all eagerness in pursuing and seeking illustrated its extensive meaning in after worldly advantages; all san- the parable, or narrative, of the guine expectation of those changes Good Samaritan; and he exemby which carnal men fancy, that the plified it in his beneficent life, and blanks of this world's lottery may by dying for us when we were become prizes; all inclination to strangers and enemies. Every man, spend more than we can afford in of whatever nation, complexion, or things not absolutely necessary, or religion he may be, is our neighto appear above our rank in our bour, whom we are to love as ourraiment, habitations, furniture, or selves, and to whom we are to act tables, and to incur debts by thus as we would he should act towards emulating our superiors; all that us; and this is the substance of the shame which we are apt to feel at second table of the law, (Essay IV.) the discovery even of honest, frugal The principles of the gospel also,

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respecting the worth of immortal | inheritance, yea, members of the souls; the ruined state of the whole same body, partakers of the same human species; the sovereignty divine life, and temples of the same and freeness of Divine grace; the Spirit; they are fellow-soldiers in infinite sufficiency of the redemption the same army, fellow-travellers in of Christ; the love of the Father in the same journey, and denizens of sending his Son to be the Saviour the same heavenly city. They posof the world; the love of the Son sess, also, an excellency peculiar to in dying for us; the love of the themselves, even the image of God, Spirit in quickening us when dead and the beauty of holiness; they in sin; the possibility of the great-are the brethren and representatives est persecutor being made partaker of Christ, to whom we are required of the same grace; as well as the to show all kindness for his sake, precepts of our Lord (who enforced and as if he were personally present the spiritual duties of the law on with us; and on all accounts they his disciples by evangelical mo- are entitled, not only to our good tives), must influence every one will and compassion, but to our corwho experiences their transforming dial approbation, esteem, and most energy, to love his neighbour un- endeared affection (Gal. vi. 10). feignedly, and to aspire after a Evangelical principles must influmore perfect conformity to the holy ence those who experience their commandment, and the attractive energy, to delight in them, and to example of his gracious Saviour. choose them as companions (Psalm These principles tend to enlarge the xvi. 3; cxix. 63); and this is the heart in good-will to men; to soften sure evidence that we "are passed it into compassion; to subdue envy, from death unto life" (1 John iii. enmity, and resentment; and to 14). For when we value and take kindle an ardent desire after the pleasure in the society of those who present and future happiness of the bear the image of Christ, profess human species, however distin- his gospel, and walk in his ways; guished and separated, or whatever when we find our hearts united to their character and conduct towards them in love, and enlarged in desires us may be. This general disposi- of promoting their welfare, not betion to love our neighbours as our-cause they belong to our party, but selves, and to regulate that love because they belong to Christ; according to the rules of God's when our cordial affection is inword, comprehends all the various creased in proportion as they appear affections which belong to the several to us to bear his holy image (even relations of life; for these, when though they differ from us in some rational and legitimate, are only sentiments or forms), it then apmodifications of benevolence, or pears, that the truth dwells in us emanations from it, in conformity with transforming power, and that to the providential will of God, and we really love the Lord himself. in obedience to his commandments. By nature we were disposed to In like manner, the special love to dislike, shun or neglect such perour brethren or fellow-Christians, sons, and even to despise and hate results from the same general prin- them: or if on other accounts we ciple; for believers are related to loved any of them, this affection each other more nearly than to any might indeed make us tolerate their other persons; they are children of religious peculiarities, but it could the same Father, heirs of the same not induce us to take pleasure in

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