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85). Says Grasberger (III, 336): "Even a certain amount of scientific knowledge in geography and astronomy and especially the most important facts of history were imparted to the youthful mind in the schools of antiquity through the works of the poets."

Interesting light is thrown on the method of teaching instrumental and vocal music, by vase-paintings, particularly those on the Douris cup in the Berlin Antiquarium. Teacher and pupil, each with his lyre, sit facing each other, the former illustrating, the latter imitating and practicing. So also on the vase of Pistoxenos (see Girard, p. 120). In a painting on one of the London amphora (Girard, p. 111) the pupil is apparently accompanying the teacher who is singing. The words are naïvely pictured issuing from his lips.


As the pupils approached the period of adolescence they entered upon courses of physical training under the paedotribe in the palaestra. Plato after having sketched the Athenian boy's education with the grammatist and the citharist continues "Then they send him to the master of gymnastic, in order that their bodies may better minister to the virtuous mind and that they might not be compelled through bodily weakness to place the coward in war or on any other occasion." That systematic training in the palaestra came as a rule later than the work in the writing or music school is indicated also by the fact that in the vase-paintings the pupils of the former institutions are represented as older than those of the latter. "When they have allotted three years from the time of boyhood to the other parts of education" says Aristotle, "they are then of a proper age to submit to labor and a regulated diet. For it is impossible for the mind and the body both to labor at the same time." (Pol. VIII, IV.) The Palaestra were private institutions and were apparently frequently named after their proprietors (Girard, 28-29). Here the young Athenians were trained in running, wrestling, jumping and in throwing the discus and the javelin.



With the conclusion of the work in the palæstra the boy of the more aristocratic class passed from under the guardianship of the pedagogue and entered upon a course of systematic physical training in the gymnasium. His work in the music school having been concluded, such intellectual training as he received was derived from listening to the discussions of philosophers and others in the gymnasia and other public places,

from attendance at the theatre, the law courts, the assembly, and from other sources of educational influence in which Athens was peculiarly rich. Eschines in his oration against Ctesiphon (246) says, "It is not, men of Athens, you know it well, it is not the palaestra, the seminary or the study of liberal arts alone, which form and educate our youth. Of vastly greater value are the lessons taught by the honors publicly conferred!" Some of the sources of this extra-school education are referred to by Lucian (Anacharsis, Rep. Com. Ed., 1897-1898, 1, 582) "We instruct them thoroughly in the common laws. These laws we have transcribed in large letters and have set them up in public places for all to read. The inscriptions give orders concerning that which it is fitting and proper for young men to do and that from which they should abstain. Further we urge upon them to seek the companionship of the noblest and best men of the state from whom they learn to speak properly, to act justly.. We also assemble the young men in the theatre and by the influence of tragedy and comedy publicly train them to contemplate both the virtues and the vices of their ancestors that they may turn from the latter and may seek eagerly to emulate the former."


During the 5th and 4th centuries changes were taking place in the political and social life of Athens which not only modified elementary education, but led to the development of a system of advanced education analogous to that of the modern university. The Athenian had been guided in his conduct by following social and religious tradition and the laws of the state. (Zeller, Pre-Soc. Phil., 1, 77.) The excitements of danger and of triumph in the Persian wars resulted not only in an intensifying of national consciousness, but in an increased consciousness of the worth of the individual. In individual and in corporate life men were guided less and less by tradition and more and more by their individual thoughts and desires. This affected school education as it did other features of social life. The traditional course of study was no longer so closely adhered to. Even during the 5th century changes had crept in which excited alarm and displeasure. Aristophanes in the Clouds compares unfavorably the newer with the older school music. "Their master would teach them, not sitting crosslegged, to learn by rote a song, either "Pallas Terrible Destroyer of Cities" or "The Shout Sounding Far," raising to a higher pitch the harmonies which our fathers transmitted to us. But if any one were to play the buffoon, or turn any quavers like these difficult turns the present artists make after the man

ner of Phrynis, he used to be thrashed and beaten with many blows, as banishing the Muses." Nevertheless the modification of the existing course according to the felt needs of the time continued. By the middle of the 4th century drawing, geometry and the related sciences had been added to the reading, writing, literature and music of the old curriculum, while from the study of literature had branched off the subject of grammar, in the narrower sense of the term. (Girard, pp. 225-226.)

Another and much later result of this intellectual awakening was the organization of a more advanced education in the schools of philosophy and rhetoric, which later united to form institutions of higher learning, the so-called 'universities' of Athens, Rhodes and elsewhere.


Just as many to-day would fear the effect upon public and private morality of a general disbelief in a future life of retribution or reward, so many of the more thoughtful among the Athenians were alarmed at the growing disregard of the traditional safeguards of conduct. It was partly in an attempt to supply a substitute for these that Socrates inaugurated a new movement in philosophy. Truth, he believed, is a safe and sure guide to conduct. And this truth lies within the grasp of every man although it can be attained only through painstaking effort. A fruitful source of error and evil conduct has been that men have been too indolent to search out the truth and content to be guided by mere opinion. The truths that are a safe guide in conduct, he held, are those that apply not simply in particular instances, but in all cases. In other words, the most important truths are the general truths. The process of eliminating from our thought what was merely individual and accidental was facilitated through the mutual criticism of the dialogue. Hence with the general purpose in view of aiding others as well as himself he was apparently ready to discuss anywhere with any one any topic the discussion of which promised to contribute to the sifting out of truth from error.

His follower, Plato, on the other hand, arranged his teachings into something like a system and taught in a definite place, the academy. At his death his disciples constituted so organized a body that he was able to bequeath the headship over them to Speusippus, his nephew. Fees were collected by the latter, buildings were erected, classes organized and a definite school of philosophy, the Academy, came into existence. Similarly in the same city somewhat later, other schools of philosophy sprang up, the Peripatetic, the Stoic and the Epicurean, founded by Aristotle, Zeno and Epicurus, respectively.

These four schools together with those of the rhetoricians which will be discussed later and which in a similar manner seem to have become resident permanent institutions, formed the nucleus of what afterwards became under the Roman empire something like a great national university. For this reason and because one or the other of these philosophical systems influenced more or less directly the schoolwork of subsequent times (Jowett, Plato, II, p. 19; Oxford, 1892), mention will be made here of one or two of the characteristics of each.

Socrates' opinion as to the great importance of general ideas (Windelband, Hist. Anc. Phil., pp. 129) was such elaborated by his disciple, Plato, the founder of the Academic school. While the former held that the wholly true universally valid concepts could be found by merely culling, out from thought all that was individual and accidental, Plato, in his suggestive, semi-poetical manner (Jowett, op. cit., II, 14), ascribes to them self-substantial separate reality. They are the true realities of which individual things are but the imperfect copies, and they existed before the latter. (Idea ante rem.) Being such they were to be attained not through the comparison and elimination of the qualities of individual things but through a process of speculative intuition (Windelband, 194).

To Aristotle, the founder of the Peripatetic school and the greatest and most influential of all ancient philosophers, truth was to be arrived at through the investigation of individual things. General concepts do not exist independently of individuals but in them. (Idea in re.) This question as to the relative reality of individuals or classes on which Plato and his pupil Aristotle differed became the centre of philosophical discussion during the scholastic period of the middle ages. Aristotle, in addition to many other philosophical and scientific achievements, summed up, supplemented and systematized the results of the labors of his predecessors in the art of arriving the truth through reasoned argument in the new science of logic, his treatise on which has ever since remained the standard on that subject. Though the Peripatetic school waned after the death of its founder the writings of Aristotle have exerted a predominant influence upon the thought of succeeding times. To the medieval scholastics he was the infallible authority on things worldly as were the Scriptures and the church on spiritual questions.

Of the remaining schools, the Stoic, founded by Zeno, was the most important both in its influence upon conduct and in its relation to non-professional education. In order that he might reach not merely the select few but the masses Zeno established himself not in the retirement of the groves of the Academy or the Lyceum as did Plato and Aristotle, respectively,

but in the 'Stoa Poikile' in the centre of the busy life of the city. The most eminent representative of Stoicism was Chrysippus, the third head of the school. To the Stoic the great end of life was virtue which he defined as living in conformity with nature or with natural law. (Windelband, 308 and 310.) The attainment of this end involved a course of study for in order to live in conformity with nature it was necessary first to learn to know nature through the study of physics. After we have acquired these facts about nature we must be able to use them in arriving at general truths or principles. The ability to do this is acquired in the study of logic. Finally we must learn through the study of ethics to apply these truths in matters of conduct. Like Socrates the Stoics found a source of wrong conduct in the workings of men's minds. Instead of their actions being controlled by the intellectual truths just referred to they were misdirected by the passions. Hence the wise man is he who ignores the emotions and is guided in his acts solely by his intellectual insight.

To Epicurus, the founder of the Epicurean school, the great end of life lay in the securing of happiness. True happiness, however, was to be found only in the practice of reflective insight, that is, of virtue.


At the age of eighteen the young Athenians of all but the poorest class entered as ephebes upon the two years course in military training provided by the state. The frequent drills of this period, the marches to the frontier, the sojourn in camps and forts and the police and sentry duties still left the ephebes a good deal of leisure to profit by the educational opportunities which life in Athens afforded.

Owing to certain political and social changes, however, this unsystematized intellectual culture became inadequate. As membership in the legislative assembly was extended to all citizens and as the decision of disputes at law was handed over to one or another of the bodies of five hundred ordinary citizens (Cox. Gen. His. of Greece, p. 89), the young Athenians began to realize keenly the need of systematic training in the art of oratory and of debate. Hence when teachers appeared who professed to give this training their services were eagerly sought. They are known in our time as the sophists. Plato (Euthydemus, 272A) describes two sophists as "most skillful in legal warfare; they will plead themselves and teach others to speak and to compose speeches which will have an effect upon the courts." Again Plato represents the sophist Protagoras as saying of a young man ambitious of political preferment who sought instruction from the latter, "If he comes to

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